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Surdités cachées ; atteinte des cellules sensorielles cochléaires ou du nerf auditif ?

Abstract : Sensorineural hearing loss are classically described by auditory thresholds elevation usually correlated with outer hair cells (OHC) degeneration. However, recent work on animal models has shown that normal audiogram can be associated with peripheral hearing impairments. This thesis contributed to better characterize, in mouse models, these hidden supraliminal deficiencies related on the one hand, with OHC alterations and on the other, to auditory nerve fibers degeneration. In the first part of this thesis, the auditory profiles evolution of mice exhibiting an OHC accelerated degeneration, the CD1-RjOrl: SWISS strain mice, was characterized. In this longitudinal study, conducted in the first postnatal month, a progressivity of the hearing impairment has been observed. However, a surprising discrepancy was found between high frequency hearing thresholds close to normal values associated with missing distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). The masking tuning curves dips are shifted toward low frequencies. Those data indicate that basal OHC are no longer functional and the perception of high frequencies is disrupted. Observations in scanning electron microscopy revealed an abnormal conformation of the OHC stereocilia bundles at the cochlea base. These results represent an evidence of a disorganized cochlear tonotopy. In the second part of this thesis, the effect of oxaliplatin on the auditory function and on the cochlear morphology was described in adult CBA/J strain mice. Oxaliplatin, a platinum salt used in chemotherapy, has many side effects including development of peripheral neuropathy. Following one treatment with this drug, mice did not present any hearing threshold elevation or OHC function impairment. However, the histological study reveals a surprising degeneration of the spiral ganglion cells. With additional electrophysiological tests, a decrease in the compound action potential amplitude has been demonstrated. The median olivocochlear efferent system reflex, evaluated by a contralateral suppression test, also seems to be diminished by the treatment. The mice treated with oxaliplatin, therefore constitute a precious animal model of hidden deafness, which needs to be better characterized. The results of these studies confirm the audiogram insufficiency to detect subtle cochlea alterations and reveal the need to improve supraliminal deficiencies diagnosis. Thus, hidden OHC impairments can be detected by the absence of DPOAE associated with normal auditory evoked potentials and neuropathies by the presence of DPOAE associated with abnormal auditory evoked potentials. The combination of these functional and electrophysiological tests would allow better management of patients and an improvement in their quality of life.Keywords: hidden hearing loss, CD1 mice, outer hair cells, masking tuning curves, tonotopy, oxaliplatine, spiral
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Submitted on : Friday, February 8, 2019 - 2:52:06 PM
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Marion Souchal. Surdités cachées ; atteinte des cellules sensorielles cochléaires ou du nerf auditif ?. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAS003⟩. ⟨tel-02012141⟩



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