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Les modèles d'ilôts/quartiers à système énergétique local bas carbone : fondamentaux techniques et économiques, conditions institutionnelles de mises en oeuvre et conséquences pour les modes de vie

Abstract : The development of the neighborhood as a scale of a more sustainable urban development takes part in a period of awareness linked to climate change for which the European Union has implemented an energy transition policy. In this context, the eco-neighborhoods are structured around two key points in terms of energy: energy efficiency and energy supply. Energy efficiency, which encompasses the energy performance of buildings and the control of energy demand, is the spearhead of existing local energy transition policies. In contrast, the low-carbon energy supply does not seem to have reached sufficient maturity to be fully implemented at the neighborhood level. Nevertheless, the analysis of eco-district projects shows the growing interest in the creation of a low carbon energy supply using local resources. This interest reflects, in particular, the willingness of some local actors to reach a degree of energy autonomy. In order to consider the neighborhood as a relevant scale for low-carbon energy supply, it is necessary to analyze the technical-economic and institutional conditions to be implemented. It reveals the need for a paradigm shift in the structuring of energy systems from centralized to decentralized systems. However, this new paradigm is conditioned by the technical and economic maturity of the infrastructures that can be installed in the district and by the ability to find a viable business model making the investment profitable on this scale. For the institutional part, it causes a modification of the relations between the actors using the energetic vectors studied (electricity and heat). The rise of new production profiles with the development of renewable energies and the emergence of new consumer profiles becoming producers, alters the energy value chain and makes it necessary to guarantee the flexibility of energy systems to ensure their correct functioning. To plan a different pathway that these relationships might take, a methodological approach based on the construction of the ideal-type was carried out. It shows the need for a new player, the energy manager, to ensure the proper functioning of the energy systems installed in the neighborhoods.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02012064
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Submitted on : Friday, February 8, 2019 - 2:06:06 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:21:15 AM

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Miléna Marquet. Les modèles d'ilôts/quartiers à système énergétique local bas carbone : fondamentaux techniques et économiques, conditions institutionnelles de mises en oeuvre et conséquences pour les modes de vie. Economies et finances. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAE006⟩. ⟨tel-02012064⟩

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