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Concept de radars novateurs pour la vision à travers les milieux opaques

Abstract : "Vision" through opaque environments (walls, partitions, rubble, or any environment that obscures human vision) is one of the key issues of control and security. Advances on this issue have led to operational shortrange radar systems for people detection and tracking in simple environments. However, most of them require the targets to move in order to differentiate them from static objects. This requirement constitues a major shortcoming for a certain number of real scenarios where people, by strategies or by constraints, remain motionless. Hence, this thesis aims to explore the mechanisms of detection of static people through their micro-movements, e.g. movements induced by the thorax during breathing. We have studied - from a theoretical point of view - the physical principles underlying the detection of these micro-movements by pulsed UWB radar with the pulsed Doppler phenomenon, which relies on consecutive measurements of the reflected pulses phases. The understanding of this phenomenon made it possible to define a radar architecture and to position it, in terms of contributions, with regard to the different UWB radars proposed in the literature : the FMCW and the noise radar. Two radar devices served as support for this work. An academic demonstrator based on the use of a fast oscilloscope to digitize the pulses. It allowed to set up a complete processing chain for the application of vision through the walls. The second device is a radar prototype developed around a high-speed scanning platform (100 Gsps perequivalent sampling) with a very high refresh rate (100 Hz). This prototype is built around an FPGA, a fast ADC (1.25 GHz) and a very wide band T&H (18 GHz). This thereby enables to detect micro-movements by pulsed Doppler processing.
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Vincent Merelle. Concept de radars novateurs pour la vision à travers les milieux opaques. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université de La Rochelle, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LAROS017⟩. ⟨tel-02010909⟩

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