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Le surfactant pulmonaire, une barrière déterminante de la réponse des cellules à l'exposition aux nanoparticules

Abstract : Particulate matter emitted by human activity are the cause of various pulmonary and cardiac diseases. After inhalation, nanoparticles (ie particles smaller than 100 nm) can reach the pulmonary alveoli, where the gas exchanges take place. In the alveoli, the nanoparticles first encounter the pulmonary surfactant which is the fluid that lines the epithelial cells. Of a few hundreds of nanometers in thickness, the pulmonary fluid is composed of phospholipids and proteins, the phospholipids being assembled in multilamellar vesicles. In this work, we considered model nanoparticles of different nature (latex, metal oxides, silica). Their interaction with a mimetic pulmonary fluid administered to premature infants (Curosurf®) was studied by light scattering and by optical and electron microscopy. We have shown that the interaction is non-specific and mainly of electrostatic origin. The wide variety of hybrid structures found in this work attests however of the complexity of the phospholipid/particle interaction. In addition, we succeeded in formulating particles covered with a Curosurf® supported bilayer. These particles exhibit remarkable stability and stealthiness in biological environment. In a second part, we studied the role of the pulmonary surfactant on the interactions between nanoparticles and alveolar epithelial cells (A459). With cellular biology assays, we observed that the number of internalized particles decreases dramatically in presence of surfactant. At the same time, we found a significant increase in the A459 cell viability. Our study shows the importance of the pulmonary surfactant in protecting the alveolar epithelium in case of nanoparticle exposure
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Fanny Mousseau. Le surfactant pulmonaire, une barrière déterminante de la réponse des cellules à l'exposition aux nanoparticules. Physique [physics]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC125⟩. ⟨tel-02010525⟩

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