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Epidémiologie d'une maladie transfrontalière des petits ruminants (Pestes des Petites Ruminants) à fort impact au Mali

Abstract : Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused respectively by a Morbillivirus and a mycoplasma (Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae) are two highly contagious respiratory diseases of small ruminants. PPR is present in Africa, Asia, Middle East, and has just entered Europe. On the African continent, particularly in West Africa, it is emerging and is a major factor of food insecurity for low-income farmers. CCPP, identified in Niger in 1995, is only suspected in Mali on the basis of serological results.PPR is a model for the study of transboundary diseases because its diffusion is closely linked to regional movements of livestock. Understanding this diffusion is an essential condition for the implementation of effective control measures (vaccination, border control, etc.).The aims of our study is to clarify the epidemiological situation of PPR and the CCPP in Mali, including whether these two diseases coexist in order to assess the risk for goat production chains and propose appropriate control strategies.We did not succeed in confirming the presence of the CCPP in Mali. PPR has already been identified in Mali. The aim of our study for PPR is to characterize the genetic diversity and therefore the different lineages that circulate in Mali and, more generally, in the West African sub region by using at first the partial gene of Nucleoprotein of PPRV. We then estimated more accurately the diversity and rate of evolution of the virus in the region from PPRV genomic sequences. Our studies showed that three lineages of PPRV are circulating in Mali and West Africa. The lineage II is dominating and is characterized with a wide genetic diversity and extensive transboundary circulation. We also demonstrate the progression of lineage IV in West Africa and the persistence of lineage I in Mali and Niger (at least until 2001). These results reflect the large flow of uncontrolled livestock trade between all West African countries. In Mali, there is no means of control, traceability and animal identification. The use of genetic diversity as an epidemiological marker is an effective means of controlling the spread of PPR in these West African countries.
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Kadidia Tounkara. Epidémiologie d'une maladie transfrontalière des petits ruminants (Pestes des Petites Ruminants) à fort impact au Mali. Sciences agricoles. Université Montpellier; Université des sciences, des techniques et des technologies de Bamako (Mali), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTT068⟩. ⟨tel-02010475⟩

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