Analyse de la vapeur d’eau atmosphérique et des processus dynamiques associés

Abstract : In the context of global warming and climate change, it is important to study the distributions, seasonal cycles and trends of trace gases in the atmosphere such as water vapor. of the Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand is in charge of several observation devices including the instrumented site Cézeaux, Opme and Puy de Dôme (CO-PDD) located near the center of France (45◦ N, 3◦ E). The site of Cézeaux is instrumented by a Rayleigh - Mie–LIDAR Raman providing routine vertical profiles of water vapor mixing ratio and optical parameters characterizing cirrus clouds. The puy de Dôme site is equipped with an optical cavity spectroscope (CRDS-Picarro). Measurements of total water vapor columns are available on all these sites by GPS. The Opme site is equipped with rain gauges. Finally, Météo-France performs the quality control work and of data on meteorological stations in France and these data were used in this thesis. The validation of the puy de Dôme data was the first the first task in this thesis. Comparisons between the puy de Dôme data sets showed a very good agreement between the water vapor datafrom the OPGC meteorological station of Puy de Dôme, Météo France and CRDS data with a correlation of 0.94 and 0.98 respectively. The vertical profiles deduced from the LIDAR allowed to identify a water vapor anomaly and a stratosphere-troposphere intrusion associated with this anomaly. OLR data showed that this intrusion could be linked with deep convection and LACYTRAJ confirms the stratospheric origin of a part of the air mass present above Clermont-Ferrand. Long series of observations (eg Puy de Dôme 1995-2015) and ECMWF ERA-Interim re-analysis (1979-2017) and the diversity of data sources (eg AIRS and COSMIC satellites), allowed us to document, analyze and compare the variability, cycles and trend of surface and tropospheric water vapor at different time scales and determine the geophysical processes responsible for water vapor distributions at the site of CO-PDD. The annual cycle of water vapor is clearly established for the two sites of different altitudes and for all types of measurement. Cézeaux and puy de Dôme present almost no diurnal cycle, suggesting that the variability of surface water vapor at this site is more influenced by a sporadic meteorological system than by regular diurnal variations. The LIDAR dataset shows a greater monthly variability of the vertical distribution than the COSMIC and AIRS satellite products. The Cézeaux site presents a positive trend for the GPS water vapor total column (0.42 ± 0.45 g/kg*decade during 2006–2017) and a significant negative trend for the surface water vapor mixing ratio (−0.16 ± 0.09 mm/decade during 2002–2017). The multi-linear regression analysis shows that continental forcings (East Atlantic Pattern and East Atlantic-West Russia Pattern) have a larger influence than oceanic forcing (North Atlantic Oscillation) on the water vapor variations.
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Dani Hadad. Analyse de la vapeur d’eau atmosphérique et des processus dynamiques associés. Sciences de la Terre. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC038⟩. ⟨tel-02010392⟩

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