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Recherche d'information et humanités numériques : une approche et des outils pour l'historien

Abstract : The work of this thesis focuses on the consequences of digital technology development on research practice in the humanities in the broad sense and particularly in history. The introduction of digital technology disrupts historical research practices by making available to the researcher a large volume of digitized sources as well as numerous analysis and writing tools. These new capacities of research allow the discipline to adopt new approaches and renew certain points of view, but they also raise methodological and epistemological questions. Given this observation, we have chosen to study in more detail the impact of information retrieval tools, digital libraries and search engines on historical research activity. These systems offer access to a large volume of historical documents but they depend on computer processes that are mostly invisible to users and acting as black boxes. The main objective of this work is to give users the means to observe and understand these processes in order to allow them to integrate their side effects in a suitable methodology. In order to better position our object of study, we propose a conceptual framework based on the notion of digital resource. This concept represents the digital systems that we study within their contexts of use, production and execution. It connects uses expected by users and methodological or technical choices based on the assumptions of system designers. Based on this conceptual framework, we propose an analysis of digital libraries and historical sources search engines according to each context. Thus, our study proposes an analysis of the uses of this type of digital resource within the framework of a research in history. The study adopts an experimental approach and produces indicators of the practice. These indicators are then crossed with the functioning of the system, in its contexts of production and execution, to reveal the potential methodological biases. Following these analyzes, we propose a reinvestment of these results in the form of a software tool dedicated to teaching a critical approach to online information retrieval for student in history. This work is evaluated by an experimental approach. It is built on the basis of a prototype of observation of the behavior of the users when they are looking for information. Our experimental approach is also based on demonstration tools of the biases associated with the functioning of the computer processes involved during the contexts of production and execution. This prototype has been the subject of several experimental phases related to its development, the evaluation of these features and its impact on practice in a training context.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 6, 2019 - 4:08:34 PM
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Cyrille Suire. Recherche d'information et humanités numériques : une approche et des outils pour l'historien. Recherche d'information [cs.IR]. Université de La Rochelle, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LAROS010⟩. ⟨tel-02009843⟩



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