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Stockage adaptatif pour noeud de capteur sans fil autonome et sans batterie

Firdaous El Mahboubi 1
1 LAAS-ESE - Équipe Énergie et Systèmes Embarqués
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes
Abstract : Energy autonomy is a major challenge in the massive deployment of wireless sensor networks in numerous applications. Energy harvesting and storage can serve as solutions to the autonomy issues. However, the harsh environment of certain applications requires a long lifetime since the use of batteries for storage is prohibited. We then resort to storage on ultra-capacitors. This type of storage has disadvantages that require a compromise between 3 factors: the fast charge of ultra-capacitors (low capacity), the maximum energy storage (strong capacity), and the maximization of stored energy utilization (low residual voltage). To meet these seemingly contradictory criteria, we propose three self-adaptive storage architectures. The first consists of a matrix of four identical ultra-capacitors, interconnected by switches, whose equivalent capacity adapts to the stored energy. The second and third architectures consist of two ultra-capacitors, one of low capacity and the other of large capacity, the difference between the two architectures being related to the number and type of switches used. The self-adaptive storage architectures that we propose include a suitable self-powered control circuitry to vary the apparent capacity of the device. In addition, each architecture allows a cold start with completely empty ultra-capacitors. These three architectures were first optimized through simulation, and then validated experimentally with discrete components. Finally, we implemented the self-adaptive storage architecture with two ultra-capacitors in a completely wireless measurement system, using an energy harvesting source and its associated electronics for its power supply, and demonstrated the relevance of this approach of reconfigurable storage. In conclusion, we deduce that the topologies can reach an efficiency of energy usage of up to 94.7% by employing discrete components, a value that could be further improved through the exploitation of a silicon integrated version for both the control circuitry and the ultra-capacitors.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02009722, version 2

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Firdaous El Mahboubi. Stockage adaptatif pour noeud de capteur sans fil autonome et sans batterie. Energie électrique. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30218⟩. ⟨tel-02009722v2⟩

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