Élaboration et évaluation d’une méthode de conseils alimentaires personnalisés et pas-à-pas visant à améliorer l’adéquation nutritionnelle des régimes de femmes enceintes en France

Abstract : Pregnancy is a specific period in life characterized by an increase in nutrient needs that should be met for the health of both the mother and her baby. During this period, women would be keener on adopting healthier dietary practices. The objective of this thesis was to study these different aspects of nutrition during pregnancy and to design and evaluate a tailored, stepwise dietary advice method which aims to improve the nutrient adequacy of the diet of French pregnant women. The PANDiet score, a diet quality index, has been adapted to pregnancy by using the nutrient requirements established for this period. It has been shown that the absence of qualitative changes in a woman’s diet in the beginning of pregnancy prevented the maintenance of the nutrient adequacy. Three types of tailored dietary changes were then designed. They proved to be efficient in improving the nutrient adequacy of the diet. The more efficient the type of dietary changes was, the less acceptable it was by pregnant women. Thus, a trade-off has been considered to select the two types of dietary changes that were the most acceptable by pregnant women while showing efficiency in the improvement of the nutrient adequacy of their diet. These two types of tailored dietary changes, which respectively involved modifications of the amount consumed of foods and substitutions of foods within the same food subgroup, have been proposed to French pregnant women during a randomized controlled trial. Furthermore, qualitative data revealed that pregnant women sought for positive and trustworthy information about nutrition-related in order to contribute towards the well-being of both their baby and themselves. In the randomized controlled trial, the approach proposing tailored dietary advice, generated in a stepwise process, in addition to generic dietary guidelines proved to be more efficient in improving the nutrient adequacy of the diet of pregnant women than the approach using only generic dietary guidelines. Furthermore, according to semi-directive interviews led with some women included in the randomized controlled trial, it appeared that dietary counseling during pregnancy resulted in solving the confusion related to nutrition issues.
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Clélia Bianchi. Élaboration et évaluation d’une méthode de conseils alimentaires personnalisés et pas-à-pas visant à améliorer l’adéquation nutritionnelle des régimes de femmes enceintes en France. Sociologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLA025⟩. ⟨tel-02008108⟩

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