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Répartition des points rationnels sur certaines classes de variétés algébriques

Abstract : In this thesis, we study the Manin and Peyre’s conjectures for several families of algebraic varieties. The Manin and Peyre’s conjectures describe the distribution of rational points of height less than B when B goes to infinity for "almost Fano" varieties in termso f geometric invariants of the variety. We prove in a first part the Manin and Peyre’s conjectures for the family of Châteletsurfaces defined as minimal proper smooth model of affine varieties of A3Q of the shapeY 2 + Z2 = F(X, 1)for a binary form F of degree 4 without multiple roots and factorizing as F = L1L2Q withL1 and L2 two linear forms and Q a quadratic form irreducible over Q[i], settling the las tremaining case of the Manin and Peyre’s conjectures for Châtelet surfaces with a = −1after works of La Bretèche, Browning, Peyre and Tenenbaum .In a second part, we find a Cox ring of identity type over Q for a family of conic bundle surfaces which contains Châtelet surfaces. This yields a description of some torsors overthese surfaces over Q and it allows us to better describe the geometry behind the existing proofs of Manin’s conjecture for Châtelet surfaces, especially in the case F = Q1Q2 with Qj a quadratic form which is irreducible over Q[i]. Moreover, this result opens the way to new applications. Finally, in a third part, we establish the Manin and Peyre’s conjectures for all n > 2for the family of singular normal projective hypersurfaces Wn of dimension 2n−2 of P2n−1defined by the equation x1y2y3 · · · yn + x2y1y3 · · · yn + · · · + xny1y2 · · · yn−1 = 0 generalizing work of Blomer, Brüdern and Salberger in the case n = 3. The method used in this work relies on recent work of La Bretèche about the number of stochastic matrices for the counting part and on an Appendix by Salberger in order to construct a crepantre solution of Wn and to describe its versal torsor for Peyre’s conjecture.
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Kévin Destagnol. Répartition des points rationnels sur certaines classes de variétés algébriques. Théorie des nombres [math.NT]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC119⟩. ⟨tel-02007278⟩



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