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Portage fécal du pathovar Escherichia coli adhérent et invasif (AIEC) chez des patients atteints de maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l’intestin et des témoins sains

Abstract : Many studies have reported an imbalance of bacterial flora in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), defined as a dysbiosis, and resulting in an increase in potentially pathogenic bacteria versus a decrease in beneficial bacteria. Previous studies have highlighted the presence of pathogenic strains of E. coli in patients with CD. These strains belong to the pathovar Adherent Invasive E. coli (AIEC) and are characterized by their ability to adhere and invade intestinal epithelial cells, to survive and to multiply in macrophages by inducing an intense synthesis of TNF. In recent years, many studies established a link between AIEC pathovar and CD. Many of these studies have been performed on biopsies of patients with CD. And although the mechanisms of pathogenicity and virulence of the AIEC strain are clearly determined, there are no in-depth studies on the prevalence of AIEC in feces in IBD patients in comparison to healthy individuals. Thus, the goal of this thesis project is to better understand the involvement of AIEC pathovars in IBD at the luminal level. This thesis is based more precisely on the study of the prevalence of AIEC in feces of patients with IBD in comparison to healthy subjects, targeting different points: prevalence and detection of AIEC, their relative proportion compared to total E. coli flora, their invasion capacity, their phylogroup as well as their transmissibility. AIEC are found at luminal level in patients with CD but also in patients with UC, with detection of AIEC in 33% and 2% respectively. In addition, a higher prevalence of these pathovar is present in the feces of healthy individuals (51%) compared to patients with IBD. And when AIEC are present, both in IBD patients and in controls, they represent on average 20 to 30% of the E. coli flora. We have also been able to show that there are no significant differences in AIEC invasion scores in patients with IBD and in healthy subjects. Some AIEC strains, isolated in patients with CD and in healthy subjects, have been genetically characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Different genetic profiles have been obtained attesting the high intra- and interindividual variability of AIEC strains. In conclusion, because of their high prevalence in healthy individuals, AIEC should be reconsidered as pathobionts, which defines a symbiont acquiring virulent properties in a genetically predisposed host due to environmental and / or dietary factors and thus promoting intestinal inflammation.
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Submitted on : Monday, February 4, 2019 - 5:59:31 PM
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Oumaïra Rahmouni. Portage fécal du pathovar Escherichia coli adhérent et invasif (AIEC) chez des patients atteints de maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l’intestin et des témoins sains. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIL2S012⟩. ⟨tel-02006741⟩



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