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Étude théorique des phénomènes de transport intracellulaire hors-équilibre thermodynamique : rôle du couplage entre transport actif et diffusif en volume confiné.

Abstract : How cells constantly remodel their intracellular space is one of the most astonishing self-organized phenomena in Nature. In order to do that, eukaryotic cells exploit the Brownian diffusion of macromolecules or organelles on small scales combined with active transport phenomena along cytoskeletal filament driven by motor proteins. Despite the important effort in the physico-mathematical community working on these biological issues, it is still very difficult to rationalize the motion of organelles (and in general of matter) inside the cell. In this thesis, we approach this problem by generalizing the theoretical analysis of a paradigmatic physico-mathematical model of non-equilibrium transport of motor proteins (called TASEP) to study the impact that a finite volume and a finite concentration of transporters have on their distribution in the cytosol and along the cytoskeleton. In particular, this requires inventing a new methodology in order to solve the problem where diffusive motion or transporters in the cytoplasm is coupled with directed collective transport along one or many cytoskeletal filaments. New interesting phenomena and regimes appear with respect to recent studies in literature. Moreover, the methodology developed so far, allow a fast and efficient investigation of complex systems behaviors for which numerical simulation can result very time consuming.The thesis is organized as follows. The first chapter is dedicated to an introduction on the topic and to the definition of biological and physical notions necessary for the research work presented. The second chapter tackles an approximate solution for the case of directed transport on a single cytoskeletal filament embedded in the cytosol, where the finite volume and the finite concentration of particles modify qualitatively and quantitatively the phase diagrams describing the average density and flux of transporters along the filament. We then discuss the physical conditions for which this approximated solution is no more valid. In order to overcome this difficulty, in chapter three we describe a novel method, inspired by the “images-method” to compute solutions of the Poisson equation in electrostatics, which allows for the first time (at our knowledge) to compute analytically the distribution of transporters in volume, i.e. the cytosol, without any approximated assumption. Importantly, the method can be easily generalized to any kind distribution or network of filaments and to other mechanisms of collective transport along the filaments. This makes possible to explore stationary regimes and new phenomena that can be hardly studied by stochastic simulations due to the complexity of the processes and the spatial extension of the system. Chapter four focuses on the innovative methodology of computation. Chapter five discusses miscellanea of problems and openings related to the topic studied. We end this thesis with general conclusions focusing on physical, biophysical and biological implications.The various results obtained have an impact on our general understanding on complex, collective and non-linear transport processes in situations and phenomena where transporters can move in spaces with different physical dimensions with interesting implications for biology, non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and the physico-mathematical theory of traffic and logistics.
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Olivier Dauloudet. Étude théorique des phénomènes de transport intracellulaire hors-équilibre thermodynamique : rôle du couplage entre transport actif et diffusif en volume confiné.. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS166⟩. ⟨tel-02006241⟩

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