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Dysrégulations de la production et de la clairance des lipoprotéines riches en triglycérides

Abstract : Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) correspond to an increase of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) circulating concentration, as a consequence of an increase in the synthesis of or a decrease in their catabolism, most classically described. In nearly 50% of patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), no genetic cause is identified, either in familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) or in multifactorial chylomicronemia syndrome (MCS). To gain new insights and to improve patient’s characterization, it remains important to conduct accurate phenotype-genotype association studies through close collaboration with referent lipidologists, and to develop high-performance tools for molecular diagnosis. Firstly, the assessment of pre-heparin LPL concentration as well as LPL activity 60 minutes after heparin injection, enabled the identification of two subgroups within 62 genotyped MCS patients Secondly, the development of a new sequencing generation workflow exploring simultaneously the 9 most prevalent genes in dyslipidemia, allowed the detection of single nucleotide variations with sensitivity equivalent to Sanger sequencing, but also allowed the detection of copy number variations. Collective consideration of the results underlines the complexity of the regulation mechanisms of TGRL metabolism and the interest of gene-gene interactions study. Thus, the studies presented herein bring new hypothesis to explore for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of severe HTG and to improve molecular diagnosis tools available for phenotype-genotype association studies
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Oriane Marmontel. Dysrégulations de la production et de la clairance des lipoprotéines riches en triglycérides. Santé. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1220⟩. ⟨tel-02006172⟩

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