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Etude des conditions de mise en œuvre de la pertraction pour l’extraction et la purification de métaux d’intérêt

Abstract : Pertraction is an emerging liquid-liquid extraction technology which use a membrane barrier as surface area between the aqueous phase and solvent. It thus offers the possibility to use very emulsive solvent and / or consisting of a pure extractant without any necessity of different density with the aqueous phase. The advantage of using a pure extractant is the possibility to have a high loading capacty of solvent (>100 g.L-1). So, we have studied the feasibility of pertraction of metals of interest by using a pure extractant as solvent. The extraction of rare earth metals (neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr) and dysprosium (Dy)) was chosen as the aim of this study. The approach was defined by tree steps : identification of selective solvent for lanthanids (Nd as model), set-up and optimization of pertraction module, mass transfer modeling. The screening of solvent was governed by namely three criteria : its affinity for Nd, its viscosity and solubility in water. To avoid fire risk, the flashpoint of solvent was also taken into account in the selection. In this framework, N, N-dibutylacetamide was selected especially for its moderate viscosity (<5 mPa.s) but its employment required the use of nitrates for increase its affinity for Nd. With high loading capacity (> 126 g.L-1), a remarkable application of DBAc could be its use for selectively extract Nd, Pr, Dy and separate them each other from magnet waste containing impurities such as iron, boron, nickel, cobalt. Pertraction of Nd by DBAc pure has been made in recycle mode on polypropylene hollow fiber module. The mass transfer model has been developed on the basis of conventional assumptions of resistances in series theory in order to predict the concentration of Nd at different times. It has required some input parameters such as diffusion coefficient of Nd in aqueous and organic phases. Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA) has been used for the experimental determination of diffusion coefficients. Experimental data and model results were found to be in good agreement for the system DBAc/Nd. The values of mass transfer coefficients in films and membrane indicate that the mass transfer limiting step is the diffusion of DBAc-Nd in the solvent present in the membrane pores and in the diffusional film of the solvent. This can be explained by the relative high viscosity of solvent because diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to viscosity in Stock-Einstein correlation. A development perspective of pertraction as liquid-liquid technology is the recovery of refractory metals like tantalum (Ta) and niobium (Nb). Preliminary studies for identify selective solvent present the properties of methylacetophenone pure (MAcPh) to extract selectively Ta from hydrofluoric solution of capacitor waste containing iron, manganese, nickel and silver as impurities with a loading capacity superior than 150 g.L-1.
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Submitted on : Monday, February 4, 2019 - 11:29:51 AM
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Moussa Toure. Etude des conditions de mise en œuvre de la pertraction pour l’extraction et la purification de métaux d’intérêt. Génie des procédés. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS149⟩. ⟨tel-02005736⟩



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