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Evaluation de l’écotoxicité des rejets urbains par temps de pluie : Développement d’une batterie de bioessais et application à la conception de biocapteurs

Abstract : Urban Wet-Weather Discharges (UWWD) represent a very complex and variable pollution due to the diversity of the rainfall events and leached watersheds. In most cases, UWWD are released without, or after very low treatments only, in suburban aquatic environments such as lakes, rivers or groundwaters. Spilled pollution is often linked to relatively short and difficult to predict events, and can be very diluted. Thus, it may be complicated to assess the ecotoxic impact of UWWD, and particularly in situ. Among the organisms used in ecotoxicology, microalgae are particularly interesting because they are the basis of trophic networks, are sensitive to a wide range of pollutants found in UWWD and can react very quickly to their presence. It’s why, first, we developed and used a battery of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) cellular biomarkers (e.g. photosynthesis disturbance) to demonstrate their utility in detecting the toxic impact of UWWD samples collected in the Lyon city area in a rapid and sensitive way, in comparison with a battery of monospecific bioassays on microalgae and microcrustaceans (e.g. growth or reproduction inhibition assays). In a second phase, we worked on the adaptation of these biomarkers for the creation of ecotoxicological field tools, biosensors. We developed two types of whole-cell biosensors based on the microalgal photosynthesis (chlorophyll fluorescence) disturbance. We particularly worked on the microalgal immobilization processes in the aim to design biosensors, using mainly two techniques: a double-encapsulation in alginate/silica hydrogels using a sol-gel process and an inclusion in microfluidic chips created by xurography. Finally, we were able to create an autonomous portative biosensor able to conduct in situ measurements of UWWDs toxicity and contaminated urban aquatic environments in general. This thesis project presents many perspectives concerning the deeper understanding of the UWWDs impact on aquatic organisms, and also on the development of whole-cell biosensors for the environmental monitoring.
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Antoine Gosset. Evaluation de l’écotoxicité des rejets urbains par temps de pluie : Développement d’une batterie de bioessais et application à la conception de biocapteurs. Environnement et Société. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSEI027⟩. ⟨tel-02004353⟩

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