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Plans expérimentaux de type self-controlled en pharmacoépidémiologie

Abstract : Pharmacoepidemiology consists in the study of efficacy or safety of drugs in real life, with the use more and more frequently of medico-administrative databases. Study designs are generally observational, thus they are prone to confounding bias. Confounders are not systematically collected in databases, which are implemented for other purposes than research. Self-controlled designs (mainly represented by case-crossover and self-controlled case-series, and in which the patient acts as his own control), have been developed for the study of intermittent exposure with short-term effect on abrupt onset event. They require that validity assumptions being fulfilled. They consist in the comparison over different periods, rather than different groups of patients, thus allowing for confounding factors, also if not measured, which are invariant over observed periods. Such designs have been proved useful in observational studies in the absence of randomization, and their implementation is recommended in case of validity assumptions are fulfilled. We studied their frequency of use in pharmacoepidemiology in healthcare databases, missed opportunities for use, inappropriate use with respect to validity assumptions, as well as quality of reporting. We showed that self-controlled designs are rarely used, that opportunity for use was founds in 15% of articles where such methods could have been implemented, that 34% of case-crossover and 13% of self-controlled case series were inappropriately used, and that the method could have been adapted to be valid in 16% of articles. A more appropriate use of self-controlled designs could contribute to improve investigation in pharmacoepidemiology, while beneficiating from their advantages, especially in healthcare databases.
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Nathalie Gault. Plans expérimentaux de type self-controlled en pharmacoépidémiologie. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC115⟩. ⟨tel-02004309⟩



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