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Etude de l'impact des paramètres de protection périphérique et environnementaux de composants de puissance en carbure de silicium en vue de leur montée en tension

Abstract : Nowadays, most of the semiconductor devices used in power electronics are silicon (Si) based devices. In order to meet the new electrical and thermal constraints induced by the demand in rising both the operating voltage and the power density of the electrical energy converters, the use of wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) may represent an adequate solution, thanks to their critical electric field (EC) which is about ten times higher than that of Si and to their ability of operating at temperatures beyond 200 °C. A state-of-the-art on the readily (commercially) available high voltage SiC diodes (10kV or higher) is presented, highlighting the progress made in improving the materials themselves as well as their peripheral protection. However, regarding the die insulating materials, the studies mainly focus on the primary passivation step, which was often mentioned as the most critical one. Obviously much less work is carried out on the impact of the secondary passivation and encapsulation materials. The goal of this study is to contribute to a better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the SiC chips and electrically insulating environment breakdown while in a blocking state, as well as to the identification of the most relevant parameters acting on these phenomena. Thus, a study of the correlated properties of the semiconductor and the passivation and encapsulation materials present on the surface of the chip was carried out on SiC-4H bipolar diodes protected by junction termination extension (JTE), supplied by IBS society, within the framework of the 'FilSiC' research project. First, a numerical simulation study of the entire structure (SiC and insulating materials) was carried out using the Sentaurus Device software (Synopsys). This allowed for quantifying the electric field stresses throughout the structure for a given applied voltage as well as their dependence on the properties of the considered insulating materials. This study was equally used for choosing the appropriate parameters of the epitaxial substrate and for designing the lateral and the surface geometry of the diodes (the technological parameters being fixed elsewhere), in view of the subsequent experimental study of their breakdown voltage in the 1kV-6kV range. Concurrently, the electrical characterization of the primary passivation material used (thick silicon dioxide layer) was performed by using MIS (metal-insulator-semiconductor) type structures, in a temperature range of up to 300 °C. This allowed to determine its main electrical properties, particularly the dielectric breakdown voltage. The work then focused on the room-temperature characterization of the breakdown voltage of the full structures built around the different manufactured diodes. The tests were carried out both under high vacuum conditions and under nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The behavior of the different study cases observed under vacuum conditions during the breakdown, coupled with the simulation results, allowed to determine the values of the maximum electric fields induced in the different insulating materials and to correlate them to their known dielectric breakdown values. On the other hand, additional results obtained under nitrogen atmosphere confirmed some technological parameters and mechanisms at play during the breakdown of the diodes. Several guidelines for the optimization of these technological parameters (epitaxy and JTE) and of the insulating passivation and encapsulation layers (thickness, permittivity) of the "high voltage" SiC diode were derived from this study.
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Lumei Wei. Etude de l'impact des paramètres de protection périphérique et environnementaux de composants de puissance en carbure de silicium en vue de leur montée en tension. Energie électrique. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30354⟩. ⟨tel-02004299⟩

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