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Optimisation microstructurale d’un acier HP pour des applications à haute température

Abstract : The purpose of this work is to optimise the microstructure of a creep-resistant alloy of the type HP, called “C” (industrial denomination). These austenitic steels are used for the manufacture of reformer tubes. The microstructural evolution of the alloy "C" has been studied in a wide range of temperatures, ranging from 700 to 1040 °C for aging times up to 1000 h. The characterization of these aged states was performed using electron microscopy (FEG-SEM, TEM) and X-ray diffraction, with emphasis on a detailed characterization of this secondary precipitation. This knowledge was then used to identify the optimal thermal conditions for the refinement of precipitation to improve the macroscopic behaviour of the alloy. The precipitation kinetics was modelled using the PRISMA ThermoCalc. A good agreement between simulation and experimental measurements has been obtained.In the studied range of temperature, the secondary precipitation consists mainly of two carbides M23C6 (M = Cr, Fe) and NbC. In the service conditions (980°C), the growth of M23C6 is fast. The coalescence of the precipitates starts after only 200h of aging. Aging at lower temperatures (700-750°C) refines this precipitation. Our study showed the efficacy of pre-treatment of the alloy at low temperatures, before the service of the material at 980°C. In the alloy "C", treated in such conditions, a significant increase in creep resistance was obtained in accelerated testing. In addition to refinement of the secondary precipitation and delaying the effects of coalescence of M23C6, the presence of a nanoscale precipitation of NbC on dislocation lines is probably the origin of this effect.
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Karolina Maminska. Optimisation microstructurale d’un acier HP pour des applications à haute température. Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013EMSE0696⟩. ⟨tel-02003637⟩

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