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Développement de verres spéciaux adaptés à la photonique moyen infrarouge pour des applications détection et mesure de gaz

Abstract : Global warming due to the increase of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main current challenges. In this context, the CO2 storage in geological reservoirs appears as a likely way to limit the consequences of these emissions on the environment. For safety reasons, this management method requires continuous monitoring of the storage tanks by using IR sensors who can go down into the wells. The application of this technology also requires to know the CO2 behavior during various storage steps, in particular when it is in its supercritical state. This is why microfluidics is currently used to simulate and understand the phenomena related to the injection and storage of CO2 in supercritical form. The implementation of such approach requires: (i) the development of novel compact solutions for in situ continuous gas monitoring to secure the storage site and; (ii) a better understanding of the CO2 behavior during the different storage steps.The first research axis of this thesis has consisted in developing vitreous active materials to increase the efficiency of optical CO2 sensor (and eventually other gas like CH4 or CO) for their continuous monitoring in saline aquifer storage sites. This sensor must be able to be deployed in depth and be sensitive to CO2 concentrations below 1000 ppmv to quickly identify any leak. Chalcogenide glasses doped with specific rare earth ions may provide broadband luminescence that can be used to detect infrared signatures of all molecules whose absorption bands are located in the 3-5 µm spectral region. Glass compositions Ga5Ge20Sb10(Se,S)65 (mol.%) doped Pr3+ and Dy3+ have been developed in order to be integrated into a functional environmental CO2 sensor. The multi-sensing gas (CO2, CH4 and CO) potential of these materials has also been investigated.Current HP/HT microfluidic systems do not allow coupling FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. This problem is due to the using of Pyrex glass for the manufacture of these microreactors. That is why the second research axis developed during this thesis has consisted in exploring various vitreous systems to propose an alternative to the Pyrex glass. The target glass had to demonstrate the best compromise between the desired optical, thermomechanical and electrical properties. In this way, glasses based on GeO2 have been developed to meet these specifications, such as the anodic bonding process used to attach the glass on the silicon wafer. The glass composition selected after the completed studies is 70GeO2-15Al2O3-10La2O3-5Na2O (mol.%)
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Julien Ari. Développement de verres spéciaux adaptés à la photonique moyen infrarouge pour des applications détection et mesure de gaz. Matériaux. Université Rennes 1; Université Laval (Québec, Canada), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017REN1S151⟩. ⟨tel-02003532⟩

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