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Composites renforcés à fibres de carbone : récupération des fibres par vapo-thermolyse, optimisation du procédé

Abstract : The global demand for carbon fiber is forecast to rise to 89,000 tonnes by 2020, therefore an increasing amount of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) waste is expect to be generated. Recycling of carbon fibers, a high value added material, from the composite waste offers both environmental and economic incentives for the development of recycling routes. The aim is to recover the carbon fibers, as close as possible to their initial state, in order to envisage a reuse in other applications. For this purpose, steam-themolysis has been developed at RAPSODEE Laboratory. Steam-thermolysis is a process that combines pyrolysis and superheated steam at atmospheric pressure to decompose the organic matrix of the composite. The work consists of a study of recovering carbon fibers by steam-thermolysis of the composites at both the laboratory and pilot scale. In this work the samples under investigation includes thermoplastic composites from manufacturing cut-offs. Two commercially available composites of polyamide and polyphenylene sulfide resins were studied. Thermo-gravimetric analyses and kinetic studies were conducted to understand the thermal behavior of the samples and to prove the efficiency of the steam-thermolysis compared to conventional pyrolysis. At the pilot scale, an experimental design was carried out to determine the best possible operational conditions of the steam-thermolysis process in terms of the removal efficiency of the polymer matrix and the quality of the recovered carbon fibers. The carbon fibers recovered from the optimized steam-thermolysis process presented a resin free and uniform surface. They retained over 80 % of their original tensile strength. The outgoing liquids and gases of the process were identified and quantified. Finally, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to compare a scenario without recycling with one where the composites are recycled by steam-thermolysis. According to this study, the recycling of CFRP, with recovery of carbon fibers, provides clear environmental advantages.
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Submitted on : Friday, February 1, 2019 - 12:10:23 PM
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Andréa Oliveira Nunes. Composites renforcés à fibres de carbone : récupération des fibres par vapo-thermolyse, optimisation du procédé. Génie des procédés. Ecole des Mines d'Albi-Carmaux, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015EMAC0006⟩. ⟨tel-02003515⟩



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