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Diversité génétique et fonctionnelle des molécules homologues de PA1b chez Medicago truncatula Gaertn. ainsi qu’au sein de légumineuses originaires du Liban

Abstract : Albumin 1 b peptides are members of the knottin structural family and display an interesting potential as insecticidal compounds. To date their diversity among Fabaceae was essentially investigated using biochemical and molecular approaches. The bioinformatic resources (full-genome sequencing, EST database, gene expression atlas…) of the Legume model, Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (Mtr), prompted us to develop a large-scale approach in two ways: 1) to decipher the evolutionary history of A1 family in this species and 2) to explore the natural biodiversity to uncover new bioactive molecules. Exploring Mtr genome revealed a remarkable expansion, through tandem duplications, of A1 loci that retain nearly all the primary structure (2 exons and 1 intron) . Phylogenetic analysis has allowed us to understand the evolution of intraspecific A1 genes and the analysis of their expression (EST, microarrays), and revealed the distribution of the A1 gene family in plant organs (tissue): the latter proved to be much more diverse than that seen in other examined legumes species, where the family until then was mainly seed-specific. Selected upon several criteria some peptides were chemically synthezised, folded in vitro and assayed for their biological activity. Among them one peptide, named AG41: isoform MtrA1013 (orphan EST : TA24778_3880), revealed a high and unexpected insecticidal power. The large-scale analysis in the presence of legumes A1 homologous showed the ancestry of the isecticidal function and the age of this family is estimated to be more than 58 million years. Our study is also directed towards the analysis of this family of peptide in legumes from Lebanon. This approach based on molecular biology has allowed us to characterize nine new genes in six species of Papilionoideae. The further study of these genes at the structural and functional level is considered. To link changes in structure and activity, a heterologous expression system (baculovirus / insect Sf9 cells) was developed. The reference recombinant peptide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 sub-unit b), even expressed in small quantities, was biologicaly active and harbouring the expected mass as well as a well-folded structure. This system has enabled also to produce the proprotein PA1, intermediate form between the preproprotein and the mature peptide PA1b. This proprotein, identified for the first time, has no toxicity towards Sf9 cells.
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Lamis Karaki. Diversité génétique et fonctionnelle des molécules homologues de PA1b chez Medicago truncatula Gaertn. ainsi qu’au sein de légumineuses originaires du Liban. Sciences agricoles. INSA de Lyon; Université libanaise, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ISAL0156⟩. ⟨tel-02003474⟩

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