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Histoire du développement, de la production, et de l'utilisation du vaccin contre la méningite A (1963-1975)

Abstract : This thesis recounts the development of a meningococcal A vaccine by the Lyon-based company Institut Mérieux between 1963 and 1975. First, we present the disease and the public health threat it posed specifically in sub-Saharan Africa giving rise to an effort to develop a vaccine championed by the French military doctor Lapeyssonnie. We trace the history of the collaboration between the World Health Organisation, the Rockefeller Institute, the International Reference Center for the Meningococcus (Pharo) and the Institut Mérieux, the company that would successfully bring a vaccine to market. We conclude with the massive vaccination programme carried out in Brazil in 1974-75 in which 80 million people were vaccinated against meningitis in an attempt to stop a deadly epidemic of the disease. We analyse this history in terms of the concept of ‘doable problems’ developed by Joan Fujimura. This approach allows us to escape the simple ‘progressive’ narrative of the discovery of a vaccine. Instead, the analysis in terms of levels of work organization and the key concepts of articulation and alignment bring to light a number of interesting aspects, notably the importance of collaboration between groups and individuals as well as implicit assumptions concerning the validity of the different approaches to vaccine production. This analytical approach allows us to bring social aspects to the fore to complement the technical history of the development and use of the vaccine in this period
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  • HAL Id : tel-02003244, version 1

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Baptiste Baylac-Paouly. Histoire du développement, de la production, et de l'utilisation du vaccin contre la méningite A (1963-1975). Histoire, Philosophie et Sociologie des sciences. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1236⟩. ⟨tel-02003244⟩

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