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Gonflement sous irradiation d'un acier de structure pour un réacteur de quatrième génération

Abstract : A cold-worked titanium stabilized austenitic steel, named 15-15Ti AIM1, is the reference material for fuel cladding to be used in the _rst core of ASTRID (prototype of Sodium cooled Fast neutron Reactor -SFR). This study contributes to the understanding of the microstructural evolution under high dose irradiation of AIM1 (> 100 dpa) and especially swelling mechanisms. Several ion irradiations of AIM1 and its precursor 15-15Ti D4 (AIM1 without phosphorus), were done at Jannus-Saclay facility. These irradiations were performed up to 150 dpa in single beam (Fe 2+) and up to 120 dpa in dual beams (Fe 2+ and He +) at a temperature set between 550 and 630 ° C in order to study the helium e_ects. Besides, thermal annealing at 650 ° Cequivalent to irradiation time (<100h) was carried out to separate the effects of temperature and irradiation. The microstructures and the irradiation-induced defects were characterized mainly by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tomographic atom probe (SAT). During thermal annealing at 650 ° C, rapid precipitation of nanometric titanium carbides over dislocations was observed. A low density of phosphorus-enriched clusters (phosphide nucleation) was also detected. After irradiation with ions, the microstructure of AIM1 and 15-15Ti revealed high density of Frank faulted-loops distributed homogeneously and which didn'tevolve with the irradiation dose (between 45 and 150 dpa). The precipitation of nanometric titanium carbides, phosphides (in AIM1) and chromium carbides was observed. Precipitation of phosphides in AIM1 is accelerated by irradiation. Irradiation_induced segregation of Ni and Si on dislocations has also been highlighted. Single-beam irradiations even at 150 dpa show very low cavities density distributed heterogeneously in the grains. It is shown that the simultaneous injection of 1 appm / dpa helium leads to much higher cavity density. In this case, cavities are attached to nanoprecipitates (TiC and phosphides). Finally, a comparison between ion and neutron irradiation on 15-15Ti D4 highlighted significant differences in the evolution of precipitation and cavity formation mechanisms. A cluster dynamics model with the Crescendo code was used to simulate the formation of Frank loops, cavities and the evolution of the dislocation network, taking into account the helium production. The model parameters were adjusted to reproduce the experimental single beam irradiation data at 630°C. The extrapolation of the model shows the displacement of the swelling peak at low temperatures as the rate of damage decreases. Taking into account the presence of Helium, the model reproduces the increase of cavity density observed in double Fe-He beams.
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Mikael Kountchou Tawokam. Gonflement sous irradiation d'un acier de structure pour un réacteur de quatrième génération. Matériaux. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMR108⟩. ⟨tel-02003160v2⟩

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