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Les enjeux esthétiques et politiques des métamorphoses de l'œuvre de Jean-Luc Godard

Abstract : This research is at the intersection of aesthetics, arts, and information and communication sciences. My initial hypothesis was based on the contribution of Godard's work to multidisciplinary research. As a filmmaker, critic, theoretician, video producer, archivist and television director, Jean-Luc Godard is the author of a metamorphic work, which radically redefined the boundaries of cinema. Godard challenged the hegemonic ambition of current technologies and, at the same time, integrated them in an experimental film practice. Thus, he has developed a pensée en actes filmiques, without breaking with current times. The montage at the foundation of Godard's creation, and also expressed in his discourses, has created a space in which the contrary confluence of discursive, visual and acoustic signs – stemming as much from the vast field of literary, philosophical, musical, cinematographic, classical and modern artistic culture as from contemporary artefact production – and leads the viewer to break with his habits. Godard’s montage has questioned the future of communication by image and word, and has offered an aesthetic concept to the domination of the visual. My thesis was based on discourse and image analysis, paying a close attention to the films produced by Godard during and following the conception of Histoire(s) du cinema (1988-1998). Since the 1990s, Godard's film practice has become that of an essayist and a writer of multimedia. The principle of re-use has been at the very foundation of Godard's films. By exploiting this, I analysed the filmmaker's fragments and quotes. I used a comparative and multidisciplinary approach which allowed me to embrace several picture, artwork and language theories, all of them being critical points of view to think about the potentials of communicating by audiovisual creation. Godard, as a paradoxical player of the end of cinema, redefined the film's devoir-être, i.e. an imperative short-circuiting of early film theory (Epstein, Faure), of Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology and of Deleuze’s philosophy. Traditionally perceived as an inherent element of cinema, the representation of reality proceeded from a dialectic of the visible and the invisible, at work in the creations of Godard which has metamorphosed the aesthetic and political issues of the moving image. In the wake of the Frankfurt School (Adorno, Benjamin) and of French poststructuralism (Baudrillard, Deleuze, Derrida, Foucault), Godard's aesthetic propositions have deployed a thought that redefined the conditions of political and spectatorial emancipation. The filmmaker has encouraged the citizen-spectator to a radical questioning of the democratic facade and, in the very idea of creation and love, he has revealed the hidden contours of reality and the possibility of changing it. Sarajevo, the central subject of Godard's late cinema, opened up a debate on the possibilities of action of an ethical and political montage to denounce the plural forms of alienation in the policies of disappearance, the media coverage of conflicts and communication acting on several levels. The ambition of my demonstration lies in the possibilities of revolution contained in a form that Godard has called cinema or montage: an art of the uncontrolled and of dissent allowing to question anew the relations between aesthetics and politics, as part of widespread mutation of signs wich affects the anthropological, economic and symbolic future of societies.
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Sophie Raimond. Les enjeux esthétiques et politiques des métamorphoses de l'œuvre de Jean-Luc Godard. Sciences de l'information et de la communication. Université Côte d'Azur, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AZUR2019⟩. ⟨tel-02002438⟩

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