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Relations entre l’attirance sensorielle des consommateurs pour le gras, le salé et le sucré et leurs comportements alimentaires et leur état nutritionnel. Rôle modulateur des facteurs démographiques, socioéconomiques, psychologiques, de mode de vie et de santé

Aurelie Lampuré 1
1 CRESS - U1153 - Equipe 3: EREN- Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle
UP13 - Université Paris 13, INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM], CRESS (U1153 / UMR_A_1125 / UMR_S_1153) - Centre de Recherche Épidémiologie et Statistique Sorbonne Paris Cité
Abstract : Fats, sugars and sodium, nutrients involved in the development of chronic diseases, contribute to sensory properties of many foods in terms of taste, texture and palatability and also to the pleasure associated with their consumption. In addition, food supply has changed in recent decades, offering more foods containing high amounts of fats, sodium and sugars with strong sensory attractiveness. Still, in this context, the influence of sensory determinants on dietary intake and the development of obesity have been little explored.The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the associations between sensory liking for fat, salt and sweet and individual characteristics, and to assess its influence on food consumption and weight status, in a large population of French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort.According to the levels of liking for fat-and-salt, fat-and-sweet, salt and sweet, individual profiles based on demographic, socioeconomic, psychological, lifestyle and health factors have been highlighted.Liking for fat was associated with an increased risk of obesity over five years of follow-up, and unhealthier dietary intake contribute to explain this association However, liking for sweet was inversely associated with the risk of obesity and this relationship can be explained by one of the sub-factors which is “liking for natural sweetness”, along with a healthier diet. Finally, liking for salt was not associated with the occurrence of obesity.The structural equation models showed that dietary restriction was the major predictor of weight gain, and sensory liking for fat was an important determinant of food intake, ahead of the effect of other determinants, which are however well-known in the literature. Many relationships have also been confirmed, such as the influence of age, sex, socioeconomic status on dietary intake, as well as the impact of food consumption and physical activity on a reduce weight gain among non-overweight individuals.These results illustrate the important influence of sensory liking, especially fat liking, on food intake and weight status. Results also emphasize the need to focus on individual hedonic perception when investigating dietary habits.
Keywords : Salty foods
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Aurelie Lampuré. Relations entre l’attirance sensorielle des consommateurs pour le gras, le salé et le sucré et leurs comportements alimentaires et leur état nutritionnel. Rôle modulateur des facteurs démographiques, socioéconomiques, psychologiques, de mode de vie et de santé. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCD039⟩. ⟨tel-02001839v2⟩

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