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Efficacités et modes d'action de nouveaux simulateurs de défenses des plantes sur le pathosystème blé-Zymoseptoria tritici

Abstract : The use of biofungicides and elicitors of plant defenses are alternative control stategies that can reduce the use of conventional fungicides. However, there are few products registered and applied on wheat and even less against Septoria tritici blotch. As part of this study, we tested and demonstrated the protective efficacity of several molecules on wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici. In fact, 29 biosourced molecules derived from the functionalization of pyroglutamic acid (PGA) contained in the molasses of sugar beet were evaluated with y-aminobutyric acid GABA, for the first time against Z. tritici. GABA and 16 functionalized molecules significantly reduced the percentages of the disease. The absence of direct effects on the fungus tested in vitro confirms that these protections are due exclusively to an elicitation of plant defense mechanisms. For these molecules, the study of the structure activity relationship has highlighted the importance of different chemical groups involved in the observed protections. On the other hand, the conjugation of PGA with salicylic acid (SA) allowed the obtention of 5 new molecules among which 4 were more effective than the parent molecules and this efficiency seems to be also due to an eliciting effect. Finally, saccharin and three cyclic lipopeptides produced by Bacillus subtilis (mycosubtilin, surfactin and fengycin alone or as mixtures) were evaluated for the first time on the pathosystem wheat - Z. tritici and conferred significant protection due to eliciting properties, direct antifungal activities or combined effects. This study has thus made it possible to identify new molecules with different modes of action and which could be considered in alternative control against wheat leaf blotch, however, additional analyses are required.
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Samara Mejri. Efficacités et modes d'action de nouveaux simulateurs de défenses des plantes sur le pathosystème blé-Zymoseptoria tritici. Sciences agricoles. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018DUNK0481⟩. ⟨tel-02001770⟩

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