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Theses

Développement de techniques pour la remédiation d'aquifères pollués par des composés organochlorés

Abstract : Source zones formed by chlorinated organic compounds in soils (DNAPL) can contaminate aquifers for several centuries by feeding a plume of dissolved compounds. To deplete those source zones, DNAPL pumping is the simplest option, but the efficacy is limited by preferential water flow in the soil and capillary forces that are trapping the DNAPL. More aggressive strategies (dissolution, thermal treatment, chemical degradation...) are also costlier. Within this thesis work, two treatment strategies using surfactant foam were developed and assessed at lab-scale to prepare field assessment. The first strategy relies on foam injection in the source zone to mobilize the DNAPL in a controlled fashion to drive it ahead to pumping wells. In the best conditions, DNAPL saturation was lowered below 1% after treatment with a surfactant consumption below 10 g kg-1 of DNAPL removed. The second strategy uses foam as a reagent (hydrogen) carrier to accelerate the biodegradation of dissolved compounds in the plume. When injected as a foam, hydrogen was delivered in a targeted and more persistent manner in the strata to be treated. Developed technologies showed to be promising at field-scale and when the technico-economic assessment was conducted. Research still remains to be done to make those techniques more predictable during their implementation.
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Julien Maire. Développement de techniques pour la remédiation d'aquifères pollués par des composés organochlorés. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCD030⟩. ⟨tel-02001542⟩

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