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Experimental investigation for local structures of IVb transition metal elements in minerals and glasses formed under extreme conditions

Abstract : Elucidation of the formation mechanism of various natural glasses can help to understand the dynamics of the Earth because these materials record the formation condition in their structures. XAFS applied to natural meteorite-related glasses provides information about the local structural changes of elements therein. By performing high-accuracy XAFS analyses for trace elements and their local structure in sedimentary rocks, in the glass phase of meteorites and in the meteorite impact-related glasses such as tektite and impact glass, information on the formation condition of these materials can be obtained. We have performed local structure analysis of IVb transition metal elements (Ti, Zr) in natural minerals and glasses K-edge XANES and EXAFS as well as high-temperature laser heating and gas flow experiments on zircon, to observe structural changes at high temperature in the crystalline phases that accompany the meteoric glass. The local structure of these materials is similar to that of of Zr in K-Pg sediments, which do not show any influence from diagenesis and weathering, suggesting that K-Pg sediments maintain the thermal quenching history of the meteorite impact. However, the low abundance of Zr in sediments prompted us to study Ti, which belongs to the same group as Zr and is much more abundant. Combination of the information about the local structures of Ti and Zr allows a higher reliability for the estimation of meteorite impact event. The local structure of Zr in the fusion crust and inner glassy part of the Martian meteorite of Tissint are similar, respectively, to that in tektite and accompanying impact glass and to that in baddeleyite and fulgurite. The latter was likely vitrified part during the passage through the atmosphere. It should be possible to estimate the conditions of meteorite impact on Mars and the passage of meteorites through the Earth’s atmosphere through the analysis of the local structure of Zr in the glassy part of meteorites. In order to confirm this hypothesis, we performed heating experiments of zircon with in-situ powder X-ray diffraction experiment was performed for ZrSiO4 and ZrO2. SEM analysis confirmed evaporation of the SiO2 component. We have obtained a new ZrO2-SiO2 phase diagram where the liquid-immiscible region proposed earlier does not appear.
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Tsubasa Tobase. Experimental investigation for local structures of IVb transition metal elements in minerals and glasses formed under extreme conditions. Earth Sciences. Université de Lorraine; Graduate School of Science and Technology (Kumamoto, Japon), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0200⟩. ⟨tel-02001223⟩

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