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Nanotubes de carbone pour la délivrance transdermique électro-stimulée de substances biologiquement actives

Abstract : The permeability of skin does not allow the passive diffusion across epidermis to reach blood vessels for large molecular weight molecules such as insulin or DNA plasmids. This is possible only for small molecules such as nicotine, for example. Alternative routes of transdermal delivery exist (thermal, electrical, mechanical) that avoid injections and improve the quality of life of patients suffering of diseases like diabetes. These methods known as "Transdermal Drug Delivery" (TDD) technologies, include for example electroporation, iontophoresis and micro needles. In particular, electropermeabilisation is known to temporarily increase the permeability of the skin, consequently allowing transdermal passage of molecules of high molecular weight. The aim of this work was to conceive and elaborate an innovative needle-free device for transdermal drug delivery, made of a nanocomposite material containing carbon nanotubes to improve both electrical and mechanical properties of the biocompatible polymer matrix. This nanocomposite device aims at permeabilising the skin and delivering drug molecules simultaneously when electrically stimulated. To reach this goal, we investigated different biocompatible polymers and shaping processes, finally demonstrating the feasibility of the fabrication of such a device. We have developed a bio-sourced and biocompatible nanocomposite hydrogel with an agarose matrix and containing double-walled carbon nanotubes, and characterized it in terms of microstructure, storage and release capacity, as well as electrical properties. In the general context of precaution in relation to the implementation of nanoparticles, and on the basis of previous work demonstrating the safety of nanotubes used when they are not in direct contact with cells, we have also demonstrated that there is no release of the nanotubes under extreme conditions of temperature (without electrostimulation) in an artificial sweat medium. Finally, we have demonstrated the feasibility of its first use as a TDD system using an ex vivo mouse skin model. These results provide good evidence that the use of double-walled carbon nanotubes makes possible the transdermal delivery of large molecules with a molecular weight similar to insulin with such a nanomaterial. This thesis was in co-direction, combining Materials Science (CIRIMAT) and Life Science (IPBS) in order to gather different skills, giving it a real interdisciplinary context. Moreover, this work was integrated into a larger project (CNRS, "Nano challenge"), also including Sociology and Law, focusing on diabetes. This has demonstrated the actual demand for such a device from both the medical doctors and the patients, but also directed our work towards a medical device thanks from the juridical point of view.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02001023
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  • HAL Id : tel-02001023, version 1

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Jean-François Guillet. Nanotubes de carbone pour la délivrance transdermique électro-stimulée de substances biologiquement actives. Chimie thérapeutique. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30348⟩. ⟨tel-02001023⟩

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