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Ciblage de la cellule souche leucémique exprimant la protéine lL-1RAP : Approche d'immunothérapie anti-tumorale utilisant des lymphocytes T génétiquement modifiés pour exprimer un récepteur chimérique à l’antigène(CAR)

Abstract : Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder and is characterized by the presence of a Philadelphia chromosome (Phl) encoding the BCR-ABL fusion protein with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. The treatment by Tyrosine Kinase lnhibitors (ITK) is not curative. The problem today is ta target leukemic stem cells (HSCs) to prevent relapse of patients after stopping treatment with TKI and permanently eradicate the disease. Studies have identified the interleukin-1 accessory protein receptor (IL-lRAP) as a potential target for killing CSL (BCR-ABL1 positive) in CML or in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We therefore propose to develop a cell therapy approach targeting IL-lRAP, using T cells (LT) redirected by a CAR (Chimeric Antigen Receptor) in the treatment of CML and AML. We produced a specific anti-lL-1RAP murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) called # A3C3. We tested the specificity of the antibody # A3C3 in flow cytometry, in Western blot, by immunohistochemistry or confocal microcopy, on positive human cell lines IL-1RAP (KU812) or IL-1RAP negative (Raji). Moreover, by using this antibody, we have demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, on 20 different normal tissues that our antibody does not recognize or very few non-specific (off-target) targets. Finally, we demonstrated that this antibody is able to detect positive IL-1RAP CSLs in primary bone marrow or peripheral blood samples of LMC patients at diagnosis or after ITK treatment. By molecular biology, we have sequenced and identified rearrangements of the heavy (lgH) and light {lgL) chains coding region for hypervariable regions of# A3C3. The coding sequence for the "single chain variable fragment" (scFv), lin king the 2 lgH and lgl chains, was cloned into a 3rd generation lentiviral skeleton securised by a suicide gene, inducible caspase 9 (iCASP9). We produced CART-cells and LT-mock ex-vivo. The transduction efficiency is measured by CD3 + / CD19 + expression (82% on average, n = 5), in flow cytometry. The functionality of the suicide cassette iCaspase9/AP1903 on CART-cells after 48h treatment with AP1903 was tested. We have shown the death of more than 90% of CART-cells (7-AAD labeling in flow cytometry). We then performed in-vitro functional tests of CART-cells against LMC lines naturally expressing IL-1RAP or against transfected lines to express the membrane form of IL-1RAP. After co-culture of CART-cells in the presence of IL-1RAP + target cells, we have shown that they proliferate (CFSE test), that they secrete interferon y and inflammatory cytokines (intracellular labeling and Cytokines Bead Array assay). They are able to degranulate (CD107a & b labeling). Finally, by 7 AAD labeling, we demonstrated the cytotoxicity of CART-cells against IL1-RAP + cells. Finally, we showed the effectiveness of CART-cells in vivo, in a tumor xenograft model in NSG immunodeficiency mice engrafted by the K562-IL1RAP+/Luciferase+ line. There is a decrease in the tumor load 4 days after injection of CART-cells, until complete disappearance.This proof of concept suggests alternative therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of CML or AML, which should be optimized in murine models (sequence and injection numbers, cell numbers, associations with ITKS or other chemotherapies) in order to Phase I clinical trial, to demonstrate the feasibility and safety of the approach to consider a demonstration of efficacy in human. Securing by the suicide cassette makes it possible to consider the use of CART-cells in an autologous or allogeneic situation (Donor Lymphocytes infusion, DU)
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Walid Warda. Ciblage de la cellule souche leucémique exprimant la protéine lL-1RAP : Approche d'immunothérapie anti-tumorale utilisant des lymphocytes T génétiquement modifiés pour exprimer un récepteur chimérique à l’antigène(CAR). Cancer. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCE002⟩. ⟨tel-02000943⟩

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