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Theses

Contribution to the Study of Topological Defects and their Applications in Optics

Abstract : In this thesis, we study topological defects in cosmology and condensed matter physics. We propose to investigate the analogy between defects that appear in these two realms with respect to aspects of formation and gravity. For instance, we discuss the analogy between cosmic strings and disclinations existing in liquid crystals. In particular, we concentrate our efforts on the study of gravity/geometric aspects of two linear defects: wiggly cosmic string and hyperbolic disclination. The gravitational field of wiggly strings is analogous to the one of regular strings, but with a non-vanishing Newtonian potential. For that reason, besides the spacetime has conical geometry, the string also produces gravitational pullings on objects located in its vicinity. This new fact leads to new effects in addition to the already expected gravitational lensing. In fact, we find that both massive and massless fields are confined to the string when we examine non-perpendicular propagation to the string axis. This statement is based on the analysis of trajectories and by applying the wave formalism. Finally, we propose the design of an optical waveguide having the specific refractive index likely to simulate the effects of wiggly strings in the laboratory. Even though the hyperbolic disclination is very similar to the ordinary one, the resulting medium is an anisotropic metamaterial, in which the ratio between ordinary and extraordinary permittivities is negative. In fact, as our analysis concerning the hyperbolic medium is very close to the previous one for the wiggly string, we also apply the wave formalism together with geometrical optics treatment to understand how light propagates. Interestingly, we find that for one specific director field arrangement of the hyperbolic liquid crystal metamaterial, light is confined and directed to the metamaterial axis. More specifically, we come into possession of an optical device that concentrates light rays, no matter how they are injected in it
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Frankbelson dos Santos Azevedo. Contribution to the Study of Topological Defects and their Applications in Optics. Optics [physics.optics]. Université de Lorraine, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0198⟩. ⟨tel-02000753⟩

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