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Theses

Trois essais sur les Relations de Long Terme entre Croissance et Environnement

Abstract : Human activities and the environment interact through multiple and complex relations. Can the natural environment be viewed as a limit to growth ? This thesis tries to develop answers to this crucial question.The first chapter shows that environmental degradations may constitute a brake on growth diminishing life expectancy, and thus savings. It also shows that environmental poverty traps may exist. However,public environmental policies may help countries to escape from such traps, and to reach a higher level of income per capita. In the second chapter, we suggest that the existence of polluting non-renewable resources necessary for production may hamper growth. However, we show that flow pollutions caused by the use of resources can’t be seen as a development brake. Then, following neoclassical works of the1970s, we confirm that exogenous technological progress and sufficient substitution possibilities mayal low to overcome difficulties linked to the exhaustibility of resources. Finally, the third chapter demonstrates that, in low-income economies, strong resource dependency dampens growth while abundanceis growth promoting. Dependence is the outcome of economic choices. Thus a diversification policy that consists on investing the rent in secondary and tertiary sectors may help reduce dependence. Finally, we suggest that the development of education, institutions, and financial markets may allow to decrease the probability to experience a resource curse.
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Nicolas Clootens. Trois essais sur les Relations de Long Terme entre Croissance et Environnement. Economies et finances. Université d'Orléans, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ORLE0505⟩. ⟨tel-02000169⟩

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