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Invasions biologiques et maladies émergentes en santé animale : expansion et colonisation du bassin méditerranéen par Culicoides imicola (Diptera Ceratopogonidae), moucheron vecteur d'Orbivirus

Abstract : Biological invasions are of major concern because of their environmental, economic and health consequences. Determining and understanding the factors underlying the invasion success of species allow predicting potential other biological invasions, and developing vector control strategies. Culicoides imicola is a major vector species of Orbivirus, including the bluetongue virus (BTV) which affects domestic ruminants. Following BT emergence in the Mediterranean basin, C. imicola populations were recorded in territories where the species was considered to be absent, and consequently was described as expanding its range expansion on a short period. This Phd work describes a set of studies aiming at understanding the colonization history of the Mediterranean basin by C. imicola. The use of a multi-loci approach combining population genetics analyses, Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) methods and mathematical simulations of the atmospheric dispersion of the species enabled to (i) determine the origin of the established populations in the Maghreb and the Middle-East and describe the routes of colonization and the chronology of such events, (ii) define the demographic, evolutionary and temporal characteristics of south-western Europe colonization and (iii) characterize the main factors explaining the successful range expansion of the established populations. The main results of this thesis allow suggesting hypotheses to explain the successful establishment of C. imicola populations in the Mediterranean basin.
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Stéphanie Jacquet. Invasions biologiques et maladies émergentes en santé animale : expansion et colonisation du bassin méditerranéen par Culicoides imicola (Diptera Ceratopogonidae), moucheron vecteur d'Orbivirus. Biologie animale. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS163⟩. ⟨tel-01999578⟩

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