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Conception d’observateurs pour la commande d’un système pile à combustible embarqué en vue d’optimiser performances et durabilité

Abstract : Fuel cells are considered as a promising source of energy for the future, thanks to their non-polluting aspect. However, the deployment of these solutions on a large scale is still conditioned by the improvement of their performance and especially of their durability in order to guarantee a low cost industrialization. The transport application also imposes a variable power demand, which complicates the improvement of performance and durability. The approach adopted for this work consists of the design of a system management law that generates the optimal operating conditions to be applied to the stack (pressures, temperature, current, stoichiometries) as a function of the power demand, the state of health (active surface loss) and current humidity. Optimality is understood in the sense of increasing system efficiency and decreasing the degradation of the membrane and the platinum dissolution. This law is based on degradation and performance models of a fuel cell system. This management law requires in real time the data of the state of health of the fuel cell and the humidity rate. The assessment of the state of health is already the subject of many diagnostic work. On the other hand, the humidity rate must be estimated by a state observer because the humidity sensors are not reliable for a transport application. Therefore, a state observer was developed to estimate the relative humidities in the stack channels and also the membrane water content, the hydrogen at the anode as well as the nitrogen saturation at the anode. This last data makes it possible to propose a purge strategy for a dead-end architecture, based on nitrogen saturation, which limits the losses in hydrogen and reduces the damage associated with this architecture.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, January 30, 2019 - 9:26:27 AM
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Maxime Piffard. Conception d’observateurs pour la commande d’un système pile à combustible embarqué en vue d’optimiser performances et durabilité. Energie électrique. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSEI121⟩. ⟨tel-01999307⟩

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