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Etude de la diversité structurale et fonctionnelle au sein de l'espèce Penicillium roqueforti

Abstract : Several « technological » fungal species play an important role in the development of organoleptic properties and typicity of cheeses via their metabolic activities. However, despite an ancestral use and consumption of cheeses, there is still a lack of knowledge about both genetic and functional traits of certain mold species, in particular Penicillium roqueforti. This species, mainly used in blue-veined cheese production, largely contributes to the specific organoleptic properties in the final product via its intense lipolytic and proteolytic activities during ripening. P. roqueforti is characterized by high morphological diversity, largely revealed during this study, and has been associated with different technological names in the past raising the question about several species within P. roqueforti. Consequently, a phylogenetic study based on genealogical concordance principle (GC-PSR) was performed using eight loci on a large worldwide P. roqueforti collection and confirmed the presence of one single species. Taking into account this result, P. roqueforti intraspecific diversity was then assessed using 4 microsatellite markers and 28 haplotypes were identified and distributed in three genetically differentiated populations linked to blue-veined cheese types. Based on these results, 55 representative isolates were further screened to determine potential haplotype-dependent traits related to proteolytic and lipolytic activities and volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolite production. This study highlighted the outstanding functional diversity among strains with, among others, 52 volatile molecules identified, mainly methyl-ketones, and contrasted mycotoxin production profiles. Noteworthy, a clear relationship between PDO/PGI group isolates and produced metabolites was observed. Following the contrasted production of mycophenolic acid among isolates, the mycophenolic acid biosynthetic gene cluster was identified in silico in P. roqueforti and RNA interference experiments targeting the mpaC gene, encoding a polyketide synthase, were performed. The cluster was shown to be fully functional in this species. Moreover, the entire mycophenolic acid cluster was compared between three strains characterized by contrasted mycophenolic acid production and a 174 bp deletion was detected in the mpaC gene of non-producing strains. This last result provided first insight into the a priori strain-dependent character for production.
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Guillaume Gillot. Etude de la diversité structurale et fonctionnelle au sein de l'espèce Penicillium roqueforti. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015BRES0081⟩. ⟨tel-01998731⟩

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