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Theses

Favoriser les ennemis naturels de ravageurs par la diversité végétale dans un contexte hivernal

Abstract : Intensive agriculture and global warming induced deep modifications in the agricultural landscapes’ biodiversity and trophic system structures, resulting in the loss of several ecosystem services such as pest biological control. Conservation biological control aims to restore trophic systems’ stability within arable lands by using plant diversity and creating functional habitats for natural enemies. This thesis aimed at identifying how vegetal diversity and its management during the winter season could favor aphids’ natural enemies in cereal intensive agricultural landscapes from the west part of France. Laboratory research and a follow-up of populations over three consecutive winters led to significant results, further developed in this thesis. The experimental laboratory research showed that the selection of the flower diversity used in sown winter cover crops should take into account their functional traits. It is indeed necessary to use a variety of species, thus combining attractiveness and profitability for the aphid’s parasites present in the agricultural mosaic during wintertime. At the field scale, studies demonstrated that warmer winter conditions are also favoring the activity of generalist ground dwelling predators, as well as that of parasitoids. The implementation of functional habitats, through the selection of an adequate plant diversity better adapted to the changing climates and to the aphids’ natural enemies’ needs, allowed to support the ground predators’ activities. Consequently, their increased activity should contribute to the early regulation of aphid populations, allowing to decrease the intensity of their population dynamics during the growing seasons. The results obtained in this thesis suggest that winter constitutes a favorable period/season for the development of new methods within the conservation biological control framework/biological control framework for conservation in temperate climatic areas.
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Maxime Damien. Favoriser les ennemis naturels de ravageurs par la diversité végétale dans un contexte hivernal. Ecosystèmes. Université Rennes 1, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1B027⟩. ⟨tel-01998652⟩

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