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Écologie industrielle, milieu éco-innovateur et diversification de l'économie territoriale : le cas du complexe industrialo-portuaire de Dunkerque

Abstract : Industrial ecology includes a set of practices aimed at reducing polluting industrial discharges and stands today as a possible way for the transition of industrial system towards a more sustainable operating mode, inspired by natural ecosystems. Its implementation can also be at the origin of innovation dynamics favorable to the development and diversification of territories, especially industrial ones. Industrial ecology is generally studied from the view of its industrial organization (organization of input and output flows, institutional framework and organization of cooperation between companies) and the environmental impacts it entails (economy of materials, recycling, etc.). In this thesis, we study its potential in terms of territorial economic development. For this purpose, we build a theoretical and conceptual framework to highlight the role of industrial ecology as a driver for development and diversification of territories. We propose a new analytical model based on the concept of eco-innovative milieu. This concept, built by crossing the literature on industrial ecology and theories of territorial economy and innovation, explains the mechanisms by which industrial ecology can promote territorial attractiveness and eco-innovation dynamics. It is the foundation on which our hypotheses are based. This model of analysis is applied to the industrialo-port complex of Dunkirk, a territory with strong industrial specialization in search of new ways of diversification of economic activities. We seek to understand the advantages of industrial ecology for the construction of an "eco-innovative" milieu, in which the effects of agglomeration favor the generation and the attractiveness of new activities thus contributing to a diversification of territorial economy. We adopt a mixed methodology based on the descriptive analysis of two databases of companies and a set of semi-structured interviews with 30 companies and institutions. The empirical study shows that industrial ecology contributes to the development of the characteristics of an eco-innovative milieu in Dunkirk. however, the dynamics of collective learning and eco-innovation specific to eco-innovative milieus remain modest. In addition, a nex dynamic of business creation has developed in Dunkirk since 2014. These new companies are linked to companies in the industrial symbiosis, either by the sector of activity, or by eco-industrial synergies. However, this dynamic only concerns a few units, but tends to validate our analysis. The diversification dynamic based on a related variety highlighted here faces, however, many difficulties. These are related to the operational and organizational aspects of the synergies nut they are also specific to the territory (economic fragility and path dependence). The contribution of industrial ecology to the diversification of industrial territories depends, in our opinion, on the resolution of these difficulties. The development of service activities and adapted territorial governance can contribute to the reduction of these limits. We study the characteristics of the service sector and the governance of the industrial symbiosis in Dunkirk. We end up with a set of recommendations that can be useful for public policies as well as for companies and institutions, in order to strengthen the eco-innovative milieu and foster the innovation dynamics that it promises.
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Fédoua Kasmi. Écologie industrielle, milieu éco-innovateur et diversification de l'économie territoriale : le cas du complexe industrialo-portuaire de Dunkerque. Economies et finances. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018DUNK0488⟩. ⟨tel-01998218⟩

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