Objets théoriques : une perspective modale sur leur mode d'existence et sur leur rôle dans l'argumentation

Abstract : In the field of the philosophy of knowledge and science, my study deals with theoretical objects in a new modal perspective. Theoretical knowledge is intended to cover factual truths and therefore one traditionally considers that this knowledge can be formulated in an extensional framework: in terms of adequacy, or, at least, of relationships with objects of our actual world. But basing my work on recent advances in the philosophy of modal logic, I will argue that scientific enterprise develops theoretical models about a variety of situations because they postulate objects that have to be considered in a modal perspective: theoretical objects are intrinsically modal, existing or recognizable in a plurality of actual or possible situations. Therefore, this modal aspect of scientific models requires that the identification of theoretical objects across various possible alternative circumstances should be examined. Indeed, the issue of the application of a scientific model, linked to the fundamental debate between realism and instrumentalism, lies with recognizing an ideal theoretical object in an actual or possible object. The concept of modality will also be useful in the fundamental analysis of scientific argumentation.
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Matthieu Gallais. Objets théoriques : une perspective modale sur leur mode d'existence et sur leur rôle dans l'argumentation. Philosophie. Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIL3H017⟩. ⟨tel-01998047⟩

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