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Développement d'un magnétomètre à balayage à température cryogénique basé sur la résonance du spin électronique du centre coloré NV du diamant

Abstract : The development of magnetic imaging systems at the nanoscale has been of central importance for many scientific advances, in particular in nanomagnetism Part of actual challenges are displaced towards materials displaying magnetic properties only at low temperatures. Imaging in these conditions creates new constraints on pre-existing techniques, which increases experimental challenges. These last years have seen the development of scanning magnetic field microscope based on the electron spin resonance of the NV center, a colored center in diamond. These devices, combining great sensitivity and excellent spatial resolution, have brought great results in nanomagnetism at room temperature. This technique relies on the mesure of the Zeeman displacement between two sublevels of the electronic spin of a unique NV center, and it can be adapted at cryogenic temperatures, bringing thereby several hopes in sensitive and resolved magnetic imaging. These thesis describes the implementation of such a microscope, at cryogenic temperatures.In the first chapter, we will present the context of this work, especially concerning the study of magnetic domain walls, a concept studied these last years for magnetic memories applications. After discussing few magnetic imaging techniques at cryogenic temperatures, we will discuss how to use the NV center as a magnetic sensor. The second chapter will be devoted to the experimental development of this magnetic microscope as well as the different imaging techniques used in this work. Our NV center magnetometer will then be used to study (Ga,Mn)(As,P), a ferromagnetic semiconductor displaying very interesting properties towards high-performance memory architectures. We will show the first domain wall images along with a study of the homogeneity of the magnetization in this material. The last part of the manuscript will be dedicated to the study of the processes at stake in the relaxation of NV centers in nanodiamonds in the prospect of using it as a fluctuating magnetic fields sensor.
Keywords : NV center
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Timothée de Guillebon. Développement d'un magnétomètre à balayage à température cryogénique basé sur la résonance du spin électronique du centre coloré NV du diamant. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLN049⟩. ⟨tel-01997873⟩

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