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Etude et modélisation de procédés innovants de mise en compression de surfaces : Traitements de surface par cavitation et par impulsions électromagnétiques

Abstract : Surface treatments methods like shot peening are used to introduce compressive residual stresses in metallic materials. The compressive stresses prevent the initiation and growth of cracks and hence improve the fatigue life of mechanical parts. The drawbacks and limitations of the existing processes generally used for this purpose are known and have been highlighted in many studies. These are, among others, an important surface modification (roughness), a limited compressive depth, difficulties in execution, debris and contamination problems, etc. Therefore, the interest in new surface treatment methods, which permit to obtain equivalent or even better compressive results while avoiding the previous problems, are growing. Cavitation peening and electromagnetic pulse peening are part of these innovative processes which modeling is the aim of this PhD thesis. Cavitation peening is a process of surface treatment which acts by the generation of cavitation bubbles near the workpiece surface. The modeling of this process is challenging because of the complexity of cavitation phenomenon and the main problematic point is the determination of the mechanical loading on the material due the bubbles collapse. In this thesis, an approach of modeling for cavitation peening based on the study of the dynamics of cavitation bubbles is proposed. Spherical and aspherical collapse of bubbles near a solid surface are studied by some numerical and analytical models. These two sources of loading pressures have been compared and a macroscopic model for cavitation peening have been derived by associating the numerical simulation of the cavitation jet and the localization of the cavitation zone. The comparison between the final residual stress profile calculated with the proposed model and the experimental results were satisfactory. Electromagnetic pulse peening (EMP) is a contactless process of surface treatment which could be used to introduce compressive residual stresses in conductive materials, by the generation of a high transient electromagnetic field. Laplace forces induced in the material by magnetic induction are the source of the material plastic deformation and compressive residual stresses introduction. To predict the EMP results, a numerical model have been built for the process simulation. The model, based on finite element method, coupled successfully electromagnetic and mechanical phenomena by using a sequential-coupled approach. It was proven theoretically, by the study of a reference case, that compressive residual stresses could be induced in metallic materials like nickel-based (Inconel) or aluminum alloys by the means of the present process. It was also shown by the calculations that much higher compressive depths than those of conventional peening processes could be achieved. The parametric study exhibited the influence of the maximum current intensity and frequency which affect both the compressive depth and the maximum residual stress.
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Abayomi Emmanuel Sonde. Etude et modélisation de procédés innovants de mise en compression de surfaces : Traitements de surface par cavitation et par impulsions électromagnétiques. Matériaux. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSEI015⟩. ⟨tel-01996984⟩

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