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La mémoire hippocampo-dépendante : altérations dans un modèle de vieillissement accéléré et régulation par le système nociceptinergique chez la souris

Abstract : Memory can be defined as a biological and psychic activity that allows the acquisition, storage and retrieval of information. Long-term memory formation takes place in several stages: acquisition, consolidation. Once consolidated, the memory can be reactivated and then reconsolidated. Memory is a dynamic process that can undergo physiological (aging) or pathological alterations (neurodegenerative diseases, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) during the life of an individual. In a first step, we characterized the behavior of Werner mice (WRN), a model of accelerated aging. Our results showed that WRN mice of different ages (3, 5 and 8 months) showed no motor problems or anxiety, two parameters altered in 21-month-old mice. These mice also showed no non hippocampus-dependent memory deficit but showed hippocampus- dependent memory deficits. In terms of functional integrity of the hippocampus, Werner mice are able to store information after learning, but from 8 months onwards, they lack behavioral flexibility in spatial and contextual memory tests, a feature also observed in physiological aging. Our results show that at the behavioral level, WRN mice are a good model for studying aging because they show from 8 months deficits comparable to normal elderly mice without confounding effects related to locomotion or anxiety. Secondly, we evaluated the effect of a neuropeptidergic system, the nociceptin system (N/OFQ peptide, NOP receptor) on long-term memory. We first showed that differentagonists of the NOP receptor inhibit the reconsolidation of aversive memory in the fear conditioning paradigm.. This inhibitory effect was also observed in a non- aversive hippocampus-dependent task, the object location test. Since activation of NOP receptors produces an amnestic effect, it can be hypothesized that their inhibition by antagonists could promote learning and memory. Indeed, our first results show that the injection of a NOP antagonist improves the performance in the object location test in Tg2576 mice, a model of familial Alzheimer's disease. All these results validate the interest of the nociceptinergic system as a therapeutic target to attenuate pathological forms of aversive memory as in the case of PTSD, or on the contrary improve memory performance in Alzheimer patients.
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Khaoula Rekik. La mémoire hippocampo-dépendante : altérations dans un modèle de vieillissement accéléré et régulation par le système nociceptinergique chez la souris. Neurosciences. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30327⟩. ⟨tel-01995975⟩

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