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Ecodynamique des substances poly- et perfluoroalkylées (PFAS) dans les systèmes aquatiques : identification des sources en milieu urbain et évaluation du transfert trophique

Abstract : Human activities are responsible for the release of multiple micropollutants into aquatic systems, such as poly- and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). These molecules have been used since the 1950s as surfactants in many industrial applications and commonly used products. For two decades, some of these substances, perfluoroalkylated acids (PFAA), have generated a major concern due to their ubiquitous and persistent behavior in the environment. Currently, there is a real lack of knowledge about the full extent of environmental contamination by all PFASs. The overall objective of this thesis is to continue the efforts undertaken since the early 2000s to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of PFASs, from their sources in urban areas, their releases to aquatic systems, to their trophic transfer.The first part consisted in optimizing a configuration of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) for the ultra-trace analysis of 25 PFASs in surface water. In a second time, the dynamics of the PFASs on the Bordeaux conurbation is studied. The analysis of 30 PFASs in wastewater collected in the sewerage network tends to show the importance of industrial inputs compared to domestic discharges for almost all the studied PFASs. Note that urban runoff is also a source of PFAS contamination. The characterization of the influents and effluents of the four main wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the metropolis shows a low efficiency of treatment channels. The use of a non-targeted analysis approach by oxidation, the TOP method (Total Oxidizable Precursors) reveals significant amounts of PFAA precursors in the sewerage network as well as in WWTP effluents. The impact of urban and airport storm water discharge on the contamination levels of a small peri-urban river has also been shown. The last part dealt with the biomagnification of PFASs in lotic systems. The evaluation of PFAS concentrations along 5 food webs from the Rhone-Mediterranean watershed enables to confirm the biomagnification of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCA) and to evaluate the spatial variability of trophic magnification factors (TMF). The biomagnification character of PFASs of "more emerging" interest, such as the 8:2 and 10:2 fluorotelomer sulfonates, is observed in a river located on the outskirts of Paris. The application of the TOP method to different trophic levels supports the hypothesis of the involvement of the biotransformation of precursors in the apparent biomagnification of PFAAs.
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Submitted on : Sunday, January 27, 2019 - 1:02:34 AM
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Caroline Simonnet-Laprade. Ecodynamique des substances poly- et perfluoroalkylées (PFAS) dans les systèmes aquatiques : identification des sources en milieu urbain et évaluation du transfert trophique. Chimie analytique. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0938⟩. ⟨tel-01995545⟩

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