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Approche expérimentale et phénoménologique des rendements de la fission induite par neutron thermique du 239Pu et du 241Pu

Abstract : Nuclear fission, although known for 80 years, remains a theoretical challenge. The complexity and multiplicity of interactions within a splitting nucleus make the modelling of the fission phenomenon delicate. Nuclear fission models struggle to replicate observables. Among these observables, however, fission yields are key ingredients for reactor physics. If they cannot be predicted effectively, it is necessary to measure them.The evaluated nuclear data libraries, which condense the current knowledge of these fission yields, nevertheless present significant uncertainties, as well as discrepancies.For several years, a collaboration between the CEA, the CNRS and the Laue Langevin Institute (ILL) has aimed at accurately measuring the yields of thermal neutron induced fission for actinides of importance for the Uranium-Plutonium and Thorium-Uranium cycles, in order to complete current knowledge and also provide reference data for model testing.In particular, during this thesis, experimental data acquired on the LOHENGRIN mass spectrometer at the ILL in Grenoble (France) were analysed for 239Pu(nth,f) and 241Pu(nth,f). Two types of yields were determined: mass yields, using an ionization chamber, and isotopic yields, by spectrometry γ with Ge.Thanks to a rigorous experimental protocol testing the reproducibility of the observables and an innovative analytical method, adapted in particular to the estimation of covariances and their propagation, the mass yields obtained present reduced uncertainties and a complete experimental covariance matrix. This is essential for understanding and using the measured data.The isotopic yields obtained are highly dependent on the nuclear structure data, and de facto present significant uncertainties. The future improvement of the nuclear structure data will allow, thanks to the analysis tools developed, to reduce the uncertainty of the isotopic yields measured.Other observables of interest have been extracted from the measurements, in particular the average kinetic energy distribution of the fission products as a function of their mass, as well as the charge polarization for part of the heavy peak. These data are complementary to fission yields and are of interest for models and future evaluations.
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Sylvain Julien-Laferrière. Approche expérimentale et phénoménologique des rendements de la fission induite par neutron thermique du 239Pu et du 241Pu. Physique Nucléaire Expérimentale [nucl-ex]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAY038⟩. ⟨tel-01995046⟩

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