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Contribution de la symbiose fixatrice d'azote dans l'adaptation d'une légumineuse à des sols contrastés : le modèle Acacia spirorbis et les contraintes édaphiques extrêmes rencontrées en Nouvelle-Calédonie

Abstract : Acacia spirorbis is a leguminous tree from New Caledonia naturally found on a wide range of soils (calcareous, ultramafic and volcano-sedimentary) and able to establish symbioses with soil microorganisms, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The contribution of this symbiosis in the plant adaptation to contrasted edaphic environments, sometimes extremes, has been investigated according to i) the nitrogen-fixing potential of A. spirorbis in its natural ecosystems, ii) the characterization of its rhizobia and iii) the plant adaptive response to heavy metals inside its roots tissues, especially in nodules.Therefore, we revealed that the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis provided more than 80% of the plant total nitrogen in natural population naturally occurring on calcareous, ultramafic and volcano-sedimentary soils. This value is top notch among other Acacia species, where A. mangium, A. melanoxylon and A. mucronata presented mean values of 50%, 43% and 58%, respectively. Acacia spirorbis established nitrogen-fixing symbioses with alpha- and bêta-proteobacteria, genus Bradyrhizobium and Paraburkholderia, respectively, thus revealing a wide range of symbiotic partner and a low selectivity. Noteworthy, the taxonomy and phenotypes of these symbionts are structured and adapted to edaphic parameters. Finally, chemical signatures of internal nodules tissues presented similarities with soils chemical properties, thus indicating a potential management of heavy metals inside these tissues.Altogether, these data suggest that the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis might significantly contributes to Acacia spirorbis adaptation towards contrasted soils with strong edaphic conditions as an extreme polymetallic toxicity.
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Bryan Vincent. Contribution de la symbiose fixatrice d'azote dans l'adaptation d'une légumineuse à des sols contrastés : le modèle Acacia spirorbis et les contraintes édaphiques extrêmes rencontrées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Sciences agricoles. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTG050⟩. ⟨tel-01993142⟩

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