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Contrôle de l'expression de Bcl-2 dans les lymphomes anaplasiques à grandes cellules par la protéine HuR en réponse au crizotinib : impact sur l'apoptose et l'autophagie

Abstract : Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) are T/-null non-hodgkin lymphoma representing most of childhood T-cell lymphoma (up to 30%). More than 80% of cases bear reciprocal chromosomic translocation responsible for abnormal expression and constitutive activation of X-ALK type (Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase) chimeric proteins (ALK+ ALCL). A striking characteristic of this lymphoma is that B-Cell Lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) remains undetectable in ALK+ cases compared to ALK- cases. This is all the more surprising as the BCL-2 oncogene, which is firmly established as a prototypic anti-apoptotic factor as well as a key autophagy regulator, has been shown to be overexpressed in a majority of lymphomas. On the other hand, the RNA-binding protein HuR (Human Antigen R) is overexpressed in ALCL (as in most cancers). It has been demonstrated that this protein was involved in the sustainability of the tumoral phenotype, and that its subcellular localization and functions were closely related to its phosphorylation status, which in turn heavily depends on ALK activity in ALK+ ALCL. In the cytoplasm, HuR has the ability to bind adenine and uridine-rich elements (ARE) located on the 3'-UTR of target mRNAs, and both protect them from degradation and increase their translation. From a general point of view, HuR is able to establish an interplay with microRNAs (miRNAs), either blocking them through competition, or actually cooperating with them and thus promote their function of negative regulators of gene expression on common target transcripts. The BCL-2 transcript, which expression seems to be silenced in ALK-expressing ALCL, has been described as a potential target of HuR. During my PhD work, I dedicated myself to understand the molecular mechanism at work in the silencing of BCL-2 expression with a focus on HuR and collaborating miRNA. The data I obtained point at a cooperation between HuR and miR-34a leading to the silencing of the BCL-2 transcript. However, when the ALK tyrosine kinase activity is inhibited, it appears the interaction between the BCL-2 mRNA diminishes, which limitates the miR-34a 's access to this transcript and ultimately results in a re-expression of the BCL-2 oncogene in these lymphoma cells. In the current context of clinical trials for ALK-targeting inhibitors, such as the Crizotinib, this BCL-2 re-expression observed upon ALK inhibition shed light on potential reasons behind some therapeutic failures that have recently been reported. Indeed, during my PhD work, I also studied the consequences of the BCL-2 re-expression observed in Crizotinib-treated cells. The data I obtained in vitro and in vivo show that, by blocking this re-expression using RNA interference, the Crizotinib anti-tumoral efficiency can be greatly potentiated. This potentiation took the form of an increase of apoptotic cell death induction and, interestingly, also affected the autophagic response triggered by the drug, making it switch from a cytoprotective- type, protumoral autophagic flux to an enhanced, deletary-type and tumor suppressive flux, adding to the therapeutic effect of the drug. This work in general provides insights for new therapeutic combinations that could potentially benefit to ALK+ ALCL patients, and illustrates the complex cross-regulations between apoptotic and autophagic pathway.
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 24, 2019 - 11:43:20 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01992115, version 1



Avédis Torossian. Contrôle de l'expression de Bcl-2 dans les lymphomes anaplasiques à grandes cellules par la protéine HuR en réponse au crizotinib : impact sur l'apoptose et l'autophagie. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30190⟩. ⟨tel-01992115⟩



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