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Etude d'une série de micrométéorites antarctiques : caractérisation multi-analytique et comparaison à des chondrites carbonées

Abstract : The study of the Solar System's small bodies (asteroids and comets), formed 4.567 billions years ago, gives us an insight on the materials initially present in the solar nebula and on the mechanisms operating in the primitive Solar System. This study can be performed via the analysis of the so-called primitive cosmomaterials, as meteorites (mainly chondrites), interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) or even micrometeorites.This PhD thesis consists of a multi-analysis of a series of 58 Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) from the CONCORDIA 2006 and 2016 collections. This set of AMMs provides a large range of textural types reflecting different intensities of heating experienced during the entry in the atmosphere : 40 unmelted fine-grained particles (Fgs), 12 particles intermediate partially melted (Fg-Scs), 1 partially melted scoriaceous particle (Sc) and 5 completely melted cosmic spherules (CSs). To study these samples, I used different analytical methods : i) Raman spectroscopy, to study the structure of the polyaromatic organic matter; ii) infrared (IR) spectroscopy, to analyze the aliphatic organic matter as well as the hydration state and the mineralogy of these samples; and iii) nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy (NanoSIMS) to measure the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen of the organic matter contained in the AMMs. In order to constrain the diversity of parent bodies sampled by cosmomaterials, I also studied type 1 and 2 CM, CR and CI carbonaceous chondrites.The combination of Raman and IR techniques reveals differences among AMMs in terms of abundance, structure and chemical composition of the organic matter, mineralogy and hydration state. In particular, 7 Fgs distinguishing themselves from others AMMs as they show : i) a hydrated mineralogy with phyllosilicates, ii) an abundance in polyaromatic and aliphatic organic matter and iii) structural differences in the polyaromatic organic matter. Heating laboratory experiments, on CM, CR and CI carbonaceous chondrite matrices show that the atmospheric entry can induce : a dehydration of the samples, a drop in the abundance of organic material and a structural modification of polyaromatic organic matter. The identification of 17 non-hydrated Fgs reveals that, in spite of their fined-grained texture, some Fgsmay have experienced significant heating during their entry in the atmosphere. The 7 identified Fgs then appears as the ones that were the least affected by the atmospheric entry and thus the most primitive of our series. Moreover, this study shows that the hydration state, the mineralogy and the organic matter are more sensitive tracers to heating experienced during the atmospheric entry than the texture of micrometeorites.Intrinsic differences, which cannot be explained by the atmospheric entry, are also revealed between the 7 hydrated Fgs and CM, CR and CI chondrites. These differences are : i) a specific spectral signature of silicates in IR, ii) an abundance in organic and aliphatic material and iii) different characteristics of the aliphatic organic matter. Moreover, the analysis of the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen shows large variabilities among AMMs, in opposition with observations among carbonaceous chondrites. These intrinsic differences are explained here as AMMs and carbonaceous chondrites sampling distinct parent bodies.
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Manon Battandier. Etude d'une série de micrométéorites antarctiques : caractérisation multi-analytique et comparaison à des chondrites carbonées. Astrophysique galactique [astro-ph.GA]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAU034⟩. ⟨tel-01991841⟩

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