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Diagnostic de la dengue : trois solutions pour améliorer la prise en charge des patients et faciliter les études épidémiologiques

Abstract : Dengue is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, in tropical and subtropical regions. Dengue virus (DENV) belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Although most DENV infections are asymptomatic or result in a self-limited febrile illness, severe diseases characterized by plasma leakage, with or without hemorrhage, can also occur. Patients with a severe dengue can rapidly progress into a life-threatening shock syndrome if no efficient clinical management is provided. There is no specific treatment available for dengue but an accurate and early fluid therapy substantially reduces the occurrence of severe forms of the disease. Dengue symptoms are typically non-specific until or unless complications develop. Only a biologic diagnosis based on DENV genome, NS1 antigen or anti-DENV antibodies detection enables to confirm dengue cases. Dengue is now a major public health problem due to both its geographical spread and the increase in the number of severe cases. New diagnostic tools are necessary to ensure epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease. These tools need to be effective and easy to use in every medical settings, from the smallest primary health centers to the biggest reference centers, and also usable for epidemiologic studies, e.g. for epidemic investigations. The work presented in this thesis was dedicated to this problematic.In a first part of the work, a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), designed to detect NS1 antigen, anti-DENV IgG and IgM, was evaluated, both in a specialized laboratory and in the field, in order to compare the test performances in two different settings, with the same samples. Interestingly, sensitivity was lower when the test was used in the field compared to the sensitivity of the test when performed in the specialized laboratory. Discordances were mainly observed for IgM and IgG detection. Impact of the use of the RDT on clinical management was also assessed during the field study and it revealed that Cambodian pediatricians ignored the results of the RDT and followed their clinical instinct.A second part of the work was dedicated to the assessment of the usefulness of urine and saliva for dengue diagnostic. Dengue diagnostic normally requires a venous blood sample that can be difficult to obtain in certain conditions such as in children or during epidemiological studies. Urine and saliva are easier to collect as the procedure is non-invasive. We showed that, although the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood samples is difficult. Performances of commercial RDTs developed for NS1 and anti-DENV antibodies (IgM, IgG and IgA) detection in urine and saliva specimens were not satisfactory.In the last part of the thesis, the potential use of proteinuria as a prognostic marker of severity was assessed but it didn’t prove to be a useful marker for risk prediction.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, January 23, 2019 - 10:54:21 AM
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Anne-Claire Andries. Diagnostic de la dengue : trois solutions pour améliorer la prise en charge des patients et faciliter les études épidémiologiques. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS146⟩. ⟨tel-01990524⟩



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