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Theses

Utilisation d'une décharge à barrière diélectrique pour développer une matrice polymère plasma dégradable pour des applications vasculaires

Abstract : Every year, about 1.5 million patients need a vascular replacement due to advanced arteriosclerosis, which causes the internal narrowing of blood vessels. Unfortunately, even today the synthetic materials used to replace small diameter arteries (below 6 mm) remain associated with low patency rate, which demonstrates an evident lack of biocompatibility. One of the main observed complications is arterial neointimal hyperplasia, which is characterized by the blood vessel obstruction due to the tridimensional proliferation of cells on the graft internal wall. Different strategies aiming at limiting this body reaction are currently considered, in particular the use of a drug delivery system locally integrated to the vascular grafts. Concurrently, the rise of plasma technologies enabled to demonstrate the possibility to coat the surface of biomedical devices to improve their interaction with a biological environment. The strategy consists in using the plasma energy and reactivity to polymerize a gaseous precursor. By selecting the appropriate precursor molecular structure and plasma experimental conditions, one can build up a plasma polymer with tailored properties. It is in this context that this thesis consisted in synthesizing, using plasma, a biodegradable polymeric plasma polymer matrix to coat the internal wall of a vascular graft, with the goal to incorporate a drug chosen to limit neointimal hyperplasia. On one hand, this project acted as proof of concept by developing a degradable plasma polymer coating using a planar dielectric barrier discharge. After extensive studies using ethyl lactate as precursor, optimal chemical vapor deposition conditions were elected for their potential in terms of vascular applications. On the other hand, thanks to an extended discharge characterization, a strong correlation was established between the plasma physico-chemistry and the properties of the degradable coatings synthesized. In addition, to broaden possibilities in terms of degradation rate, the influence of a squared pulse power supply on the discharge and the coating was studied. If changing the way to bring the energy had a strong influence on the discharge, no major influence was noticed on the ethyl lactate-based coatings' chemistry and morphology. Finally, a tubular plasma reactor was build up to empower the internal wall of vascular prosthesis to be coated, which enabled to extend this project to the deposition conditions of its final application. Overall, this research project highlighted the potential of plasma processes for the development of degradable plasma polymer matrices, particularly for local drug delivery systems for vascular applications. On a physics perspective, this work emphasized the importance of studying the discharge under actual thin layer deposition conditions.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 22, 2019 - 4:39:19 PM
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Morgane Laurent. Utilisation d'une décharge à barrière diélectrique pour développer une matrice polymère plasma dégradable pour des applications vasculaires. Plasmas. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30189⟩. ⟨tel-01989956⟩

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