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Concevoir un produit pour plusieurs vies : Propositions pour la conception et l'évaluation environnementales de solutions en cascade

Tom Bauer 1
1 G-SCOP_CPP [2016-2019] - Conception Produit Process [2016-2019]
G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production
Abstract : This PhD dissertation focuses on an innovative end-of-life strategy: repurposing. We define ‘repurposing’ as a manufacturing process through which products nearing their end-of-life are reused in different applications. At the end of their intended use, products are reintegrated into the manufacturing chain and adapted for their next application. We also refer to this strategy as cascading application reuse (CAR). The main purpose of CAR is the preservation of the added-value of such products. This strategy is in line with other reuse strategies such as direct reuse and remanufacturing.The central illustration in our case study addresses lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles, which are recycled when the battery’s charging capacity falls below 80%. Extending the component lifespan with a second application, e.g. stationary application, postpones introduction into the waste stream, retaining the added-value from the original manufacturing process. Despite these advantages, examples of product adaptation for CAR remain at a proof-of-concept scale - currently these products and their value chains are not yet designed with strategies supporting reuse.The objective of this research is to provide a clear vision to design teams about repurposing strategies, how to integrate the strategies during the upstream stages of the design process and how to facilitate the corresponding lifecycle assessment. The objective is to support designers during the manufacturing of repurposed products. We make three proposals.The first consists of classifying the characteristics specific to the repurposing strategy according to three axes: the product, the (re)manufacturing process and the business model. Through this framework, we describe the dimensions and characteristics of what the repurposed product offers, which are integral during the design activity. These attributes are the result of a study of the relevant literature coupled with several field investigations.Our second proposal concerns the design process for such products. Indeed, several differences with classical design practices appear: the need for product recovery at the end of use, subsequent applications and needs not fully defined, which affect performance, etc. A design stage for repurposed products must therefore be integrated before subsequent applications in order to optimise redesign solutions. Integrated as early as possible, they aim to facilitate product reuse by taking into account stakeholders, life cycle phases, time aspects and better information management.Finally, a generic framework structuring the carrying out of life cycle analyses of repurposing is proposed. This will simplify the inclusion of their specificities for life cycle assessments (LCA) practitioners. Indeed, the complexity of LCA modelling for cascading applications products requires more rigour and precision than single application products. To support this framework, three recommendations for design teams are made, the objective of which is to better formalise the information from the design process. These recommendations support the formalisation of contextual elements to improve comparison with other studies and the organisation of information for sensitivity analyses.These three proposals are implemented on two battery case studies, during working sessions involving stakeholders representing the complete life cycle: sponsor, design teams, logisticians, recycler, etc.
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Tom Bauer. Concevoir un produit pour plusieurs vies : Propositions pour la conception et l'évaluation environnementales de solutions en cascade. Génie des procédés. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAI076⟩. ⟨tel-01988566⟩

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