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Identification, caractérisation et mise en place des gisements d'obsidienne de quatre complexes volcaniques en Anatolie orientale, dans le cadre des études de provenance au Proche-Orient

Abstract : Obsidian sourcing began in 1964 with studies by Renfrew and Cann. These authors demonstrated that one given volcano there is only one chemical signature. Based on this principle, it is possible to attribute one archaeological artefact to one volcano. This attribution allows then to develop studies on the contacts/exchanges/movements between prehistorical populations which are a key to understand past socio-cultural contexts from the Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic. Lithic assemblages in archaeological sites in the Near East contain indeed obsidian artefacts. As there is no volcano emplaced south of the Eastern Anatolian highlands, the nearest volcanic areas with obsidian outcrops that would attract near-eastern populations are located in Central and Eastern Anatolia (Cauvin et al., 1998). Taking advantage of the opening of Eastern Anatolia to field researches after 2000, and aiming at collecting scientific field data about obsidian sources in that region (especially on the volcano/outcrop scales geological and geomorphological contexts), the GéObs Project has obtained a 3 to 4 years ANR support for the study of the volcanic regions of Eastern Anatolia. Among these regions, four are concerned by our study: the Meydan-Gürgürbaba, Nemrut, Solhan and Alatepe regions. The ANR project GéObs, led by D. Mouralis (Rouen Univ./IDEES), associated with C. Kuzucuoglu (Paris 1 Univ./LGP) and L. Astruc (Paris 1 Univ./ArScan) enhances: 1) the identification of obsidian outcrops (some of which had not yet been identified), 2) the discrimination of these outcrops according to their characteristics (accessibility and types), 3) the characterization of obsidian glass (micro facies; geochemistry; mineralogy), and consecutive reconstruction of their emplacement modes. This research, based on the necessary completeness of data collection in the field, demonstrates the importance of such a new approach in the domain of “obsidian sourcing” researches.
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Anne-Kyria Robin. Identification, caractérisation et mise en place des gisements d'obsidienne de quatre complexes volcaniques en Anatolie orientale, dans le cadre des études de provenance au Proche-Orient. Géographie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA01H123⟩. ⟨tel-01986159⟩

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